Anatomy and Physiology Exam #1 Review.docx

Anatomy and Physiology Exam #1 Review.docx - Anatomy and...

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Anatomy and Physiology Exam #1 Review Chapter 1 Five Common Features 1. Responsiveness (to stimuli) 2. Growth 3. Reproduction (some are sterile) 4. Movement 5. Metabolism (building and breaking) a. Catabolism b. Anaboilism Responsiveness Actions in response to change in immediate environment o Irritability Adaptability- capacity to make longer-term adjustments Homeostasis Growth Increase in organism: o Growth of cells o Addition of cells Differentiation: process of individual cells becoming specialized for particular functions o Maturation Reproduction Creation of new generations Movement Internal or external o Internal- transporting blood, food in body o External- moving through the environment Metabolism Sum total of all chemical operations Complex organisms require specialized structures and systems for metabolic processes Metabolic Processes: o Respiration- absorption, transport, use of O2 o Digestion- breaking down complex foods that can be absorbed o Excretion- eliminating waste products by metaboic operations Anatomy
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Cutting open, dissecting Study of internal and external structures and relationships between body parts Gross anatomy or microscopic anatomy Gross Anatomy Macroscopic anatomy Visible with unaided eye o Surface Anatomy- general form and superficial markings o Regional Anatomy- superficial and internal features of a specific region of the body o Systemic Anatomy- structure of major organ systems Microscopic Anatomy Cannot be seen without magnification o Cytology- internal structure of individual cells o Histology- tissues, groups of specialized cells and cell products Physiology Study of function in living organisms Explained in anatomical terms Human Physiology Studies functions of human body Cell Physiology- functions of living cells o Chemical and molecular levels Special Physiology- of specific organs Systemic Physiology- all aspects of the function of specific organ systems Pathological Physiology/ Pathology- effects of diseases on organ or system functions Levels of Organization 1. Chemical Level- atoms are smallest stable units, they combine to form molecules, molecular shape defines functions 2. Cellular Level- made up of cells, smallest living units in the body, interaction between different molecules 3. Tissue Level- work together to perform a specific function form a tissue 4. Organ Level- two or more different tissues work together to perform specific functions form an organ 5. Organ System- organs interacting to perform specific functions 6. Organism- organ systems work together to maintain life and form an organism Organ Systems 1. Integumentary- protects against environmental hazards, control body temperature, provides sensory information (skin, hair nails)
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2. Skeletal-provides support, protects tissues, stores minerals, forms blood cells (axial and appendicular skeleton) 3. Muscular- provides movement, protection and support for other tissues, produces heat
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