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Botany 101 Exam Review

Botany 101 Exam Review - Botany 101 Exam Review#1 Robert...

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Botany 101 Exam Review #1 Robert Hooke (1665): 1 st to describe the concept of cells. Studied cork (dead cells) Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1809): Recognized that animals and plants consisted of cells, often grouped into tissues. Robert Brown (1831): discovered the nucleus Matthaias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann (1838-39): discovered the nucleolus, developed cell theory. The Plant Cell Nucleus: Surrounded by 2 membranes (nuclear envelope) containing chromosomes. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) present in chromosomes is the chemical basis of heritable information. Synthesis of ribosomes. Nuclear pores are able to select which macromolecules are allowed to leave and enter the nucleus. Nuclear pores selectively allow macromolecules to leave and enter nucleus. Cytoplasm (cytosol + organelles): bounded by the plasma membrane, connected to other membrane. Cytoskeleton (network of filaments): Trap golgi-derived vessels during cell plate formation in cytokinesis. Microtubules (hollow tubules -20nm diameter) made of and tubulin bound as dimmers. Actin filaments: 2 intertwined strands (5 nm in diameter) Intermediate filaments of various fibrous proteins. Cell Wall: 60% cellulose(characteristic of plant cells) thin and flexible (<25% cellulose, also contains hemicellose, pectin, and glycoproteins). Middle lamella holds cells together. Pectins of jelly-like consistency. Membrane System: Made of phospholipids and proteins Plasma Membrane: Surround s the cell, contact with cell wall, contact with the cytoplasm of neighboring cells by bridges (plasmodesmata) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): An internal membrane system that divides the cell into specialized compartments Rough ER: ribosomes attached (RNA + proteins), Smooth ER: Doesn’t have ribosomes attached. Golgi (dictyosomes): Stacks of vesicles that receive material from the ER and process it. Processed material is exported to the plasma membrane and cell wall (exocytosis). Discovered by Italian scientists. Involved in modification (glycoslylation) of proteins. Involved in exporting vesicles that contribute to cell wall construction. Found in animal & plant cells. Chloroplasts: green organelles surrounded by a double membrane. Site of photosynthesis (light energy harvested and converted into chemical energy as sugars by carbon dioxide) Mitochondria: Organelles surrounded by a double membrane, inner being folded (cristae). Site of respiration (convert carbon dioxide into sugars), chemical energy, converted, used, released.
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