Unit Three Anatomy Exam Review.docx

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Unformatted text preview: ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪Ā ᜀ€଀ကༀᄐ预廾怐预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏 Ꮀ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 Ꮀ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ 肄ᄖ预廾肄怖预俾 ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 ᥐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ᥐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 耗萏֠萑 ‫ﺘ‬옕ꀁ؅葞֠葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩃䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀ଀ༀ 炄ᄈ预 ᗾ‫׆‬Ā଀帆炄怈预 䏾 ᑊ 伀 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏ୀୀ萑 ‫ﺘ‬옕䀁؋葞ୀୀ葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩃䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 葞 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩃䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀ଀ༀ 傄ᄙ预 ᗾ‫׆‬Ā ᥐ 帆傄怙预䏾 ᑊ 伀 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€ 萏 ː 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ː 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀༀကༀ ꂄᄅ预廾ꂄ怅预俾 ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 萏 Ꮀ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 Ꮀ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ 肄ᄖ预廾肄怖预俾 ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 ᥐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ᥐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ଀ကༀ 㢄ᄄ预廾㢄怄预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀 (€⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 萏଀萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞଀葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€଀ကༀ 䂄ᄋ预廾䂄怋预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€ 耗萏 ฐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ฐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀᄐ预廾怐预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ଀ကༀ 炄ᄈ预廾炄怈预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏ୀୀ萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞ୀୀ葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ ႄႄᄎ预廾ႄႄ怎预俾 ႄႄ ႄႄ ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 რ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 რ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑 ⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ᜀༀကༀ ꂄᄅ预廾ꂄ怅预俾 ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏଀萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞଀葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€଀ကༀ 䂄ᄋ预廾䂄怋预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 ฐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ฐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ଀ကༀ 킄ᄂ预廾킄怂预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€萏֠萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞֠葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞 ⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 炄ᄈ预廾炄怈预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏ୀୀ萑 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 萏 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 傄ᄙ预廾傄怙预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€ 萏 ː 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ː 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀༀကༀ ꂄᄅ预廾ꂄ怅预俾 ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 萏 Ꮀ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 Ꮀ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ 肄ᄖ预廾肄怖预俾 ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 ᥐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ᥐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ଀ကༀ 킄ᄂ预廾킄怂预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀 (€⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 廾䂄怋预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 ฐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ฐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀᄐ预廾怐预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏 Ꮀ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 Ꮀ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀက⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 萏଀萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞଀葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€଀ကༀ 䂄ᄋ预廾䂄怋预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 ฐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ฐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀᄐ预廾怐预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 萏֠萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞֠葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 炄ᄈ预廾炄怈预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€ 耗 萏ୀୀ萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞ୀୀ葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ ႄႄᄎ预廾ႄႄ怎预俾 ႄႄ ႄႄ ъ儀ъ帀ъ漀 (⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪Պ 漀(€萏 ː 萑 ‫ﺘ‬옕퀁‫؂‬葞 ː 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩃䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀ଀ༀ ꂄᄅ预 ᗾ‫׆‬Ā֠帆ꂄ 怅预䏾 ᑊ 伀 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏଀萑 ‫ﺘ‬옕瀁؈葞଀葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩃䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ‫ﺘ‬옕뀁ؓ葞 Ꮀ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩃䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀ଀ༀ 肄ᄖ预 ᗾ‫׆‬Ā 帆肄怖预䏾 ᑊ 伀 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 ᥐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬옕倁‫ؙ‬葞 ᥐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩃䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ଀ကༀ 킄ᄂ预廾킄怂预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀 (€⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 რ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 რ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€଀ကༀ 낄ᄓ预廾낄怓预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 傄ᄙ预廾傄 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ᄋ预廾䂄怋预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 ฐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ฐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀᄐ预廾怐预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏 Ꮀ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 Ꮀ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀက⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ଀ကༀ 炄ᄈ预廾炄怈预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏ୀୀ萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞ୀୀ葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ ႄႄᄎ预廾ႄႄ怎预俾 ႄႄ ႄႄ ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 რ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 რ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑 ⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ଀ကༀ 킄ᄂ预廾킄怂预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏֠萑 ‫ﺘ‬ 葞֠葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 炄ᄈ预廾炄怈预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏ୀୀ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 萏 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 傄ᄙ预廾傄怙预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€萏 ː 萑 ‫ﺘ‬옕퀁‫؂‬葞 ː 葠 ‫ﺘ‬.耀萏֠萑 ‫ﺘ‬옕ꀁ؅葞֠葠 ‫ﺘ‬.耀 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ଀ကༀᄐ预廾怐预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏 Ꮀ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 Ꮀ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ 肄ᄖ预廾肄怖预俾 ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 ᥐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ᥐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑 ⡯Ā꜀ǰ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ ႄႄ ႄႄᄎ预廾ႄႄ怎预俾 ႄႄ ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 რ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 რ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€଀ကༀ 낄ᄓ预廾낄怓预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ‫ﺘ‬葞଀葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€଀ကༀ 䂄ᄋ预廾䂄怋预俾Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 ฐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬ 葞 ฐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀᄐ预廾怐预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 萏֠萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞֠葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 炄ᄈ预廾炄怈预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€ 耗 萏ୀୀ萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞ୀୀ葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ ႄႄᄎ预廾ႄႄ怎预俾 ႄႄ ႄႄ ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 ᥐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ᥐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ଀ကༀ 킄ᄂ预廾킄怂预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏֠萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞֠葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 炄ᄈ预 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ༀ 낄ᄓ预廾낄怓预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑䩞⡯Ā 漀 Āᜀ€଀ကༀ 傄ᄙ预廾傄怙预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€ 萏 ː 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ː 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ଀ကༀᄐ预廾怐预俾 Պ 儀 Պ 漀(€耗 萏 Ꮀ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 Ꮀ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ 肄ᄖ预廾肄怖预俾 ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 ᥐ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 ᥐ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑 ⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 뜀 ǰᜀ€ༀကༀ ႄႄ ႄႄᄎ预廾ႄႄ怎预俾 ႄႄ ъ 儀 ъ 帀 ъ 漀(o耗 萏 რ 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 რ 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏䩑⡯Ā꜀ǰᜀ€଀ကༀ 낄ᄓ预廾낄怓预俾 Ŋ 儀 Ŋ 漀(€耗萏 萑 ‫ﺘ‬葞 葠 ‫ﺘ‬䩏 ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ⓐ愄≴㮠଀㞺ߞ଀䗤 ቍ㨙僶㭎⺕ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ 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arteries, provide  alternate pathways for blood supply to cardiac muscle Great and Middle  Ca€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ht atrium near base of  inferior vena cava Myocardial infarction (MI)- heart attack, area of dead tissue in heart is called an  in€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ty deposits in wall of  coronary arteries 12.2 Heartbeat- contraction of atria and ventricles in coordination, atria first  follo€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€of cardiac muscle cells: Contractile cells- produce powerful contractions that propel blood Conducting system- control and  coord€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€le similar to skeletal but  longer: Action potential leads to Ca among myofibrils and binding to troponin on thin filaments  being€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ due to sodium ions  entering, voltage gated sodium channels open, depolarizes sarcolemma, and they close when  potential reaches  €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€㔀脈䩏䩐䩑䩞䩡䡭 ဉ 䡳 ဉ ᘥ 幨 搢㘀脈䩏䩐䩑䩞䩡䡭 ဉ 䡳 ဉ ᘥ 幨搢㔀脈䩏䩐䩑䩞䩡䡭 ဉ 䡳 ဉ ᘢ 幨搢伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै 猐ैैᘢ⭨뤜伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᘢ 뙨 ଀ ͊ 伀倀 J͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᘥ 뙨 ଀ 㔀脈䩏䩐䩑䩞䩡 䡭ဉ䡳 ဉ ᘀ€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€um efflux, calcium channels  close, potassium channels open so the potassium rushes out of cell. Rapid repolarization,  restores  r€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€nches and purkinje fibers Nodal cells plasma membranes depolarize and generate action potentials at regular intervals  and  electr€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ducting system, reaches  all cardiac muscle tissue and causes coordinated contraction Pacemaker Cells- nodal cells reach  threshol€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ wall of right atrium  near superior vena cava) Depolarizes rapidly and generating on its own 70-80 action potentials a minute,  s€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€x upward Blood pushed toward base of heart into aorta and pulmonary trunk Cells of SA node electrically connected to cell of  lar€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€l is delayed at AV node so  atria contract before ventricles Ventricles contract in wave begins at apex and spreads toward base A€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ generated by SA node, if it  does not receive this action potential, become pacemaker of heart and establish a heart rate  40-60  €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€extends along interventricular  septum, before dividing into left and right bundle branches that extend to apex of heart, turn  an€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€slow down, 100 msec pass  before reaches AV bundle Delay is important because atria must be contracting, blood must be moving  bef€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€uscle cells of right and left  atria, action potential spreads across atrial surface through cell-to-cell contact Stimulus  affect€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ar myocardium along  purkinje fibers Within 75 msec stimulus begin contraction reaches all of ventricular muscle cells   Clinical€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€e 100 bpm) Ectopic Pacemaker- abnormal cells generate abnormal action potentials, disrupt ventricular  contraction timing  Abnorm€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€entials may bypass  conducting system and disrupt the timing of ventricular contractions, conditions diagnosed with electrocardio€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€rformance of  specific nodal, conducting and contractile components Can diagnosis cardiac arrhythmias  Small P Wave- accompanies  €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ventricular muscle much larger than atria, contract slowly after peak of R wave   Smaller T Wave- indicates ventricular  repolari€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€nts Analyze ECG involves measuring size of voltage changes and determining temporal time  relationships of various components PR€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€㔀脈䩏䩐䩑଀͊ 庁洀 ैै猐ैैᔤ と︷ᘀ と︷伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀洀 ैै猐ैैᔤ と︷ᘀⅨ 栰伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀洀 ैै猐ैैᘢ 蹨䔕伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᘢⅨ 栰伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᘢ ꑨ켝伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᘥ ꑨ켝㔀脈䩏䩐䩑 䩞䩡䡭 ဉ 䡳 ဉ℀⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪ ge to conducting pathways or AV node   Q-T interval- time required for ventricles to undergo a single cycle of depolarization  an€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€isturbances, medications.  Conduction problems, myocardial damage. Cogenital heart defect causes sudden death can be  detected by  €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ngerous, clinical problems  when arrhythmias reduce heart's pumping efficiency Serious arrhythmias indicate damage to  myocardium,€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€s   12.3 Cardiac Cycle- brief resting following each heartbeat, period between start of one heartbeat and next, alternating  peri€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ycle, pressure decreases  Systole- chambers ejecting blood into adjacent chamber into arterial trunk, pressure increases Moves  f€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ ᘡ€  㘀脈䩏䩐䩑䩞䡭 ဉ 䡳 ဉ ᔬ € ᘀ €䌀 ᙊ ͊ 伀倀 J͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᔤ €ᘀ と︷伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀洀 ैै猐ैैᔤ €ᘀ €͊ 伀倀 J͊ 儀帀洀 ैै 猐ैैᘡ €㔀脈䩏䩐䩑䩞䡭 ဉ 䡳 ဉ ᘞ と︷伀倀 ͊ ͊ J͊ 儀帀洀 ैै猐ैैᘞ €͊ 伀倀 J͊ 儀帀洀 ैै猐ैै ᐐ€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€depend on careful timing of  contractions, pacemaking and conduction systems provide required interval of time between  atrial  sys€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€alves closed due to lower  arterial pressure Ventricular Systole- pressure higher than arteries causing semilunar valve to open  a€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ystole and atrial diastole  slightly out of phase   Phases of Cardiac Cycle Atrial Systole- atria contract, filling ventricles  wi€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€entricular diastole- early  diastole, semilunar valves close, AV valves still closed, ventricular pressure drops below atrial  pre€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€m major veins through  relaxed atria into ventricles  Atrial systoles mark beginning of cardiac cycle, ventricles 70% filled,  atr€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€uffer from oxygen and  nutrient deprivation Heart Sounds Stethoscopes- listen for heart sounds S1= lubb. AV valves close, start  €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€blood flow into ventricles and  valve action 12.4 Heart Dynamics/Cardiodynamics- movements and forces generated during cardiac  c€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€䡭 ဉ 䡳 ဉ ᘦ 쩨ꄞ䌀 ᙊ ͊ 伀倀 J͊ ͊ 帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᘦѨᔅ 䌀 ᙊ ͊ 伀倀 J 儀帀 ͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᘩѨᔅ 㔀脈䩃䩏䩐䩑䩞䩡䡭 ဉ 䡳 ဉ ᘦ と︷䌀 ᙊ ͊ 伀倀 J 儀帀 ͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैैᔬѨᔅᘀѨᔅ 䌀 ᙊ ͊ 伀倀 J 儀帀 ͊ 儀帀愀 ᙊ 洀ैै猐ैै ᔤѨᔅᘀѨᔅ ͊ 伀倀 J 儀帀 ͊ 儀帀洀ैै猐ैै ጐ଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀ ଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀ ଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀଀ ormally low, contractions very weak and may stop  Extracellular potassium concentrations can change heart rate, altering  resting€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€- stimulates activity of  mpathetic neurons, innervate heart Disorders affecting ion concentrations affect cardiac output  changin€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€se heart rate  Sustained rise in heart rate follows release of epinephrine and NE by adrenal medullae Clinical Note Caffeine  an€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€e, ANS modify heart rate  Dual innervation: Parasympathetic- innervation by vagus nerves, vagus nerves carry parasympathetic  pre€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ filling time Increase in venous return can cause increased stretch on myocardial cells, cells respond by  contracting harder,  in€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€...
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    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

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    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

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    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

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    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

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    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

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    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern