Lecture1

Lecture1 - Introduction to Biochemistry (3 Lectures) -...

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— Valency and Chemical bonds - electronegativity - types of chemical bonds (covalent, ionic, weak) - chemical reactions — Carbon - carbon skeletons - isomers — 4 Classes of biologically important macromolecules: - Carbohydrates - Lipids - Proteins - Nucleic Acids Introduction to Biochemistry (3 Lectures) — Water (4 emergent properties) — Functional groups/chemical reactions — Structure and Function of Macromolecules: monomers/polymers
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Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life
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Overview: Chemical Foundations of Biology Biology is a multidisciplinary science Living organisms are subject to basic laws of physics and chemistry
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Essential Elements of Life About 25 of the 92 elements are essential to life Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96% of living matter Most of the remaining 4% consists of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur Trace elements are those required by an organism in minute quantities
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LE 2-4 Nucleus Electrons Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) Which atom is this?
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Atomic Number and Atomic Mass Atoms of the various elements differ in number of subatomic particles An element’s atomic number is the number of protons An element’s mass number is the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus Atomic mass, the atom’s total mass, can be approximated by the mass number
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Isotopes Atoms of an element have the same number of protons but may differ in number of neutrons Isotopes are two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons Most isotopes are stable, but some are radioactive, giving off particles and energy
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Some applications of radioactive isotopes in biological research: Dating fossils Tracing atoms through metabolic processes Diagnosing medical disorders Isotope applications
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The Energy Levels of Electrons Energy is the capacity to cause change Potential energy is the energy that matter has because of its location or structure The electrons of an atom differ in their amounts of potential energy An electron’s state of potential energy is called its energy level, or electron shell
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LE 2-7b Third energy level (shell) Second energy level (shell) First energy level (shell) Atomic nucleus Energy absorbed Energy lost
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LE 2-8 First shell Hydrogen 1 H Lithium 3 Li Second shell Third shell Sodium 11 Na Beryllium 4 Be Magnesium 12 Mg Boron 5 B Aluminum 12 Al Silicon 14 Si Carbon 6 C Nitrogen 7 N Phosphorus 15 P Oxygen 8 O Sulfur 16 S Chlorine 17 Cl Fluorine 9 F Neon 10 Ne Argon 18 Ar Helium 2 He Atomic number Element symbol Electron-shell diagram Atomic mass 2 He 4.00
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Valences for the major elements of organic molecules Valence = number of unpaired electrons in outermost (valence) shell
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Lecture1 - Introduction to Biochemistry (3 Lectures) -...

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