AP Art History Paleolithic Prehistory (35,000BCE – 15,00BCE) Lion-Human o Ivory o Oldest object ever found o Most art from this time was animal and female representation Women magical create life, animals/women = life Woman from Willendorf o Limestone porous, easy to work o Emphasis on body, breasts and genitalia Fertility (swollen stomach, sexuality) o Thin layer of red paint Child, birth, menstruation o Natural hole in the stone o Hair can be sexual Woman from Brassempouy o Ivory o Don’t know if there’s more o Long necks beauty, elegant; female Cave paintings, Lascaux o Animals represented weren’t eaten (bison) o Standing (profile) o Curled up (aerial) o Use of contour lines and modeling Bison (Hall of the Bulls), Altamira Caves, Spain o most famous o capture essence of animal o artist uses curves of cave wall in art o contour lines and various perspectives twisted perspective o no ground line o layers of images o animals represented were not eaten Bison o Clay o Modeling with clay (shaping to create form) o Relief sculpture o Found in cave in France
Hallmarks: Cave paintings Twisted perspective Animal representation Composite creatures Stone Memory image Artist uses natural shape of medium Anthropomorphism Phallus Terms: Cro-magnon: upper Paleolithic population of humans Sculpture in the round: sculpture you can see from all sides Abstraction: transformation of visible forms into patterns that suggest the original Modeling: Gradations of color to show depth Twisted perspective: multiple viewpoints at once gives more info to viewer Totem: art that catches the spirit of what is represented Relief sculpture: surrounding material carved away to a certain depth, creating a background to set off the figure Neolothic Prehistory (6,000BCE – 1,000BCE) Skara Brae, Orkneys, Scotland o Housed about 500 inhabitants o Located near water o Houses connected by pathways o Corbeling architecture o Post and lintel architecture Newgrange, Ireland o Megalithic architecture o Necropolis--.passage grave o Sacred sun, close to water o Entrance blocked o Knowledge of nature/sun 364 days, completely black; 1 day for 17 minutes, light shine through box o Spiral design = circle of life o Doleman o Made of curved stones Carnac, France o Megalithic architecture o 1 megalith = menhir
o Each stone is draped/dressed (3-12 feet) o Graduate from east to west (follows path of sun) Stonehenge, Wiltshire o Horseshoe of trilathons in center o Outer ring on outside dug deep enough to expose white substance o Ring of blue stone on edge of outer ring o Heel stone (on day of summer solstice, sun shines directly on hell stone) On shadow Place can be a calendar or sacred place o Maybe there’s a ritual of walking from one henge to another circle of life/afterlife o Each stone is 50 tons Big sand stones moved from 20 miles away o Mortise and tenon o Each stone was dressed (carved) Bottom bigger than top More stable o
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