best.pdf - INFORMATION RESOURCE GUIDE Computer Internet and Network Systems Security An Introduction to Security i Security Manual Compiled By

best.pdf - INFORMATION RESOURCE GUIDE Computer Internet and...

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i INFORMATION RESOURCE GUIDE Computer, Internet and Network Systems Security An Introduction to Security
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ii ii Security Manual Compiled By: S.K.PARMAR, Cst N.Cowichan Duncan RCMP Det 6060 Canada Ave., Duncan, BC 250-748-5522 [email protected] This publication is for informational purposes only. In no way should this publication by interpreted as offering legal or accounting advice. If legal or other professional advice is needed it is encouraged that you seek it from the appropriate source. All product & company names mentioned in this manual are the [registered] trademarks of their respective owners. The mention of a product or company does not in itself constitute an endorsement. The articles, documents, publications, presentations, and white papers referenced and used to compile this manual are copyright protected by the original authors. Please give credit where it is due and obtain permission to use these. All material contained has been used with permission from the original author(s) or representing agent/organization.
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iii Table of Content 1.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................... 2 1.1 B ASIC I NTERNET T ECHNICAL D ETAILS ........................................................................................................................ 2 1.1.1 TCP/IP : Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol ............................................................................ 2 1.1.2 UDP:User Datagram Protocol ............................................................................................................................ 2 1.1.3 Internet Addressing ............................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1.4 Types of Connections and Connectors ............................................................................................................ 3 1.1.5 Routing .................................................................................................................................................................. 6 1.2 Internet Applications and Protocols ...................................................................................................................... 6 1.2.1 ARCHIE .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 1.2.2 DNS — Domain Name System ........................................................................................................................................... 7 1.2.3 E-mail — Electronic Mail ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 1.2.4 SMTP — Simple Mail Transport Protocol .......................................................................................................................... 7 1.2.5 PEM — Privacy Enhanced Mail .......................................................................................................................................... 8 1.2.6 Entrust and Entrust-Lite ....................................................................................................................................................... 8 1.2.7 PGP — Pretty Good Privacy ............................................................................................................................................... 8 1.2.8 RIPEM — Riordan's Internet Privacy-Enhanced Mail ...................................................................................................... 9 1.2.9 MIME — Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions .............................................................................................................. 9 1.3 File Systems ............................................................................................................................................................ 9 1.3.1 AFS — Andrew File system ................................................................................................................................................ 9 1.3.2 NFS — Network File System .............................................................................................................................................. 9 1.3.3 FTP — File Transfer Protocol ........................................................................................................................................... 10 1.3.4 GOPHER .............................................................................................................................................................................. 10 1.3.5 ICMP — Internet Control Message Protocol ................................................................................................................... 10 1.3.6 LPD — Line Printer Daemon ............................................................................................................................................. 11 1.3.7 NNTP — Network News Transfer Protocol ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.3.8 News Readers ..................................................................................................................................................................... 11 1.3.9 NIS — Network Information Services .............................................................................................................................. 11 1.3.10 RPC — Remote Procedure Call ..................................................................................................................................... 12 1.3.11 R-utils (rlogin, rcp, rsh) ..................................................................................................................................................... 12 1.3.12 SNMP — Simple Network Management Protocol ........................................................................................................ 12 1.3.13 TELNET ............................................................................................................................................................................. 12 1.3.14 TFTP ? Trivial File Transfer Protocol ............................................................................................................................. 12 1.3.15 Motif ................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 1.3.16 Openwindows .................................................................................................................................................................... 13 1.3.17 Winsock .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13 1.3.18 Windows — X11 ............................................................................................................................................................... 13 1.3.19 WAIS — Wide Area Information Servers ...................................................................................................................... 13 1.3.20 WWW — World Wide Web ............................................................................................................................................. 13 1.3.21 HTTP — HyperText Transfer Protocol .......................................................................................................................... 13 2.0 SECURITY ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 2.1 S ECURITY P OLICY ...................................................................................................................................................... 16 2.1.0 What is a Security Policy and Why Have One? ............................................................................................ 16 2.1.1 Definition of a Security Policy .......................................................................................................................... 17 2.1.2 Purposes of a Security Policy .......................................................................................................................... 17 2.1.3 Who Should be Involved When Forming Policy? .......................................................................................... 17 2.1.4 What Makes a Good Security Policy? ............................................................................................................ 18 2.1.5 Keeping the Policy Flexible .............................................................................................................................. 19 2.2 T HREATS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 19 2.2.0 Unauthorized LAN Access ............................................................................................................................... 21 2.2.1 Inappropriate Access to LAN Resources ....................................................................................................... 21 2.2.2 Spoofing of LAN Traffic ..................................................................................................................................... 23 2.2.3 Disruption of LAN Functions ............................................................................................................................ 24
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iv 2.2.4 Common Threats ............................................................................................................................................... 24 2.2.4.0 Errors and Omissions ..................................................................................................................................................... 24 2.2.4.1 Fraud and Theft ............................................................................................................................................................... 25 2.2.4.2 Disgruntled Employees ................................................................................................................................................... 25 2.2.4.3 Physical and Infrastructure ............................................................................................................................................. 25 2.2.4.4 Malicious Hackers ........................................................................................................................................................... 26 2.2.4.5 Industrial Espionage ........................................................................................................................................................ 26 2.2.4.6 Malicious Code ................................................................................................................................................................ 27 2.2.4.7 Malicious Software: Terms ............................................................................................................................................. 27 2.2.4.8 Foreign Government Espionage ................................................................................................................................... 27 2.3 S ECURITY S
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