Physics 2 Textbook.pdf - University Physics Volume 2 SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS SAMUEL J LING TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY JEFF SANNY LOYOLA MARYMOUNT

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Unformatted text preview: University Physics Volume 2 SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS SAMUEL J. LING, TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY JEFF SANNY, LOYOLA MARYMOUNT UNIVERSITY WILLIAM MOEBS, PHD OpenStax Rice University 6100 Main Street MS-375 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax, visit . Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. ©2018 Rice University. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). Under this license, any user of this textbook or the textbook contents herein must provide proper attribution as follows: - If you redistribute this textbook in a digital format (including but not limited to PDF and HTML), then you must retain on every page the following attribution: “Download for free at .” If you redistribute this textbook in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: “Download for free at .” If you redistribute part of this textbook, then you must retain in every digital format page view (including but not limited to PDF and HTML) and on every physical printed page the following attribution: “Download for free at .” If you use this textbook as a bibliographic reference, please include in your citation. For questions regarding this licensing, please contact [email protected] Trademarks The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, OpenStax CNX logo, OpenStax Tutor name, Openstax Tutor logo, Connexions name, Connexions logo, Rice University name, and Rice University logo are not subject to the license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University. PRINT BOOK ISBN-10 PRINT BOOK ISBN-13 PDF VERSION ISBN-10 PDF VERSION ISBN-13 ENHANCED TEXTBOOK ISBN-10 ENHANCED TEXTBOOK ISBN-13 Revision Number Original Publication Year 1-938168-16-X 978-1-938168-16-1 1-947172-21-2 978-1-947172-21-0 1-947172-21-2 978-1-947172-21-0 UP2-2016-003(05/18)-MJ 2016 OPENSTAX OpenStax provides free, peer-reviewed, openly licensed textbooks for introductory college and Advanced Placement® courses and low-cost, personalized courseware that helps students learn. 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The future of education. OpenStax.org I like free textbooks and I cannot lie. Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1. Thermodynamics Chapter 1: Temperature and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium . . . . . . . 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales . . . . . . 1.3 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry . . . 1.5 Phase Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2: The Kinetic Theory of Gases . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed . . . . . . 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy . . . . . 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3: The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . Chapter 4: The Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes . . . . . . . 4.2 Heat Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics 4.5 The Carnot Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism Chapter 5: Electric Charges and Fields . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Electric Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction . 5.3 Coulomb's Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions . 5.6 Electric Field Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Electric Dipoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6: Gauss's Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Electric Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium . . . . . . . Chapter 7: Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Electric Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference . . . . . 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Determining Field from Potential . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors . . . . . . . 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8: Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9: Current and Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . 8 . 9 12 19 26 35 67 68 78 88 93 109 110 112 116 122 126 128 145 146 148 150 153 155 160 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 182 188 192 197 204 213 217 235 236 245 251 265 285 286 293 305 316 319 328 345 345 355 361 365 368 385 9.1 Electrical Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Ohm's Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10: Direct-Current Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Electromotive Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments . . . . . . . . 10.5 RC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety . . . . . Chapter 11: Magnetic Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries . . . . 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop . . . . . . 11.6 The Hall Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields . . . Chapter 12: Sources of Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire . . . 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents . 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop . . . . . . . . 12.5 Ampère’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 Magnetism in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 13: Electromagnetic Induction . . . . . . . . . 13.1 Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Lenz's Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Motional Emf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Induced Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 Eddy Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf . . . . . . . . 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction . . . . Chapter 14: Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 Mutual Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 RL Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . 14.6 RLC Series Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 15: Alternating-Current Circuits . . . . . . . . . 15.1 AC Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Simple AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC . . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 16: Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves . . . 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure . . . . . . . 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . Appendix A: Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix B: Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This OpenStax book is available for free at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 391 397 406 409 415 431 432 440 453 466 469 475 493 494 496 501 506 511 514 517 535 536 540 543 546 549 555 560 581 582 586 591 598 602 606 613 627 628 631 637 639 645 648 661 662 663 670 675 679 684 699 700 706 712 717 722 741 745 Appendix C: Fundamental Constants Appendix D: Astronomical Data . . . Appendix E: Mathematical Formulas Appendix F: Chemistry . . . . . . . . Appendix G: The Greek Alphabet . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 751 753 757 759 807 This OpenStax book is available for free at Preface 1 PREFACE Welcome to University Physics, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost. About OpenStax OpenStax is a nonprofit based at Rice University, and it’s our mission to improve student access to education. Our first openly licensed college textbook was published in 2012 and our library has since scaled to over 25 books used by hundreds of thousands of students across the globe. OpenStax Tutor, our low-cost personalized learning tool, is being used in college courses throughout the country. The OpenStax mission is made possible through the generous support of philanthropic foundations. Through these partnerships and with the help of additional low-cost resources from our OpenStax partners, OpenStax is breaking down the most common barriers to learning and empowering students and instructors to succeed. About OpenStax's resources Customization University Physics is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content contributors. Because our books are openly licensed, you are free to use the entire book or pick and choose the sections that are most relevant to the needs of your course. Feel free to remix the content by assigning your students certain chapters and sections in your syllabus in the order that you prefer. You can even provide a direct link in your syllabus to the sections in the web view of your book. Instructors also have the option of creating a customized version of their OpenStax book. The custom version can be made available to students in low-cost print or digital form through their campus bookstore. Visit your book page on OpenStax.org for more information. Errata Al...
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