100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 9 out of 24 pages.
EXISTENTIALISM IS A HUMANISMJEAN-PAUL SARTRELecture 7 In Dialogue with Humanity
JEAN-PAUL SARTRE(1905-1980)- French-Wrote novels, short stories, and playsEX: Nausea, The Wall, No Exist-one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism- Turned down Nobel Prize (1964): “a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution.”-Died 1980: -Quotes:i.Hell is other people (他人就是地獄)ii.Man is condemned to be free; because once thrown into the world, he is responsible for everything he does. It is up to you to give [life] a meaning.
EXISTENTIALISM IS A HUMANISM: BACKGROUND - L’Existentialisme est un Humanisme(%2FExistentialisme.htm)- a public lecture at the Club Maintenant in Paris in October 1945- 1945: a time of great intellectual ferment and guarded optimismi. Paris had been liberated from the Nazi Occupation and reprisals against collaborators were being meted out--think about issues of integrity and betrayal in relation to the Occupation, the Resistance and the Vichy Governmentii. The truth about the horrors of Auschwitz and Dachau was emerging; the atom bomb had been dropped for the first timeiii. a sense of the need for a reexamination of the previously unquestioned foundations of society and moralityPhilosophical, and in particular moral, questions were no longer of merely academic interest.
TITLEL’Existentialisme est un HumanismeExistentialism is a Humanism (Direct translation)Existentialism and Humanism (Translation)Is Existentialism a Humanism? (Simone de Beauvoir)
CONTENTPart 1: “offer a defence of existentialism against several reproaches that have been laid against it.”1. Communists- existentialism is an action-averse, merely contemplative philosophy “since contemplation is a luxury, this would be only another bourgeois philosophy”- existentialism’s focus on the meaning of the individual self leads it to ignore the interconnections among people and their projects“it is impossible to regain solidarity with other men who exist outside of the self”
2. Christians- existentialism focuses disproportionately on the negative aspects of life“for depicting what is mean, sordid or base to the neglect of certain things that possess charm and beauty and belong to the brighter side of human nature”- its individualism would destroy any means by which people could condemn others’ actions.“since we ignore the commandments of God and all values prescribed as eternal, nothing remains but what is strictly voluntary. Everyone can do what he likes, and will be incapable, from such a point of view, of condemning either the point of view or the action of anyone else.”
Public: public mistakenly views existentialism as pessimisticSartre: i. existentialism offers the “possibility of individual choice” ii. existentialism is a kind of humanismQuestions should be answered: