Chapter 2notes

Chapter 2notes - Behavioral Variability in Research Chapter...

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Behavioral Variability in Research Chapter 2
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Behavioral Variability In psychology (and all behavioral sciences) we hope to answer questions about behavioral variability Behavioral Variability: How and why behavior varies across situations, differs among individuals, and changes over time Example: how/why/when do college students drink?
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Leary’s 5 propositions Proposition 1 : Psychology and other behavioral sciences involve the study of behavioral variability 1. Across situations (i.e. parties, dorms, downtown, at home, alone) 2. Among individuals (i.e. students on 3 year plan, 6 year plan) 3. Over time (i.e. 1970s-present)
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Leary’s 5 propositions (cont’d) Proposition 2 : Research questions in these fields are questions about behavioral variability Behavior = cognitions, emotions, performance, etc. Proposition 3 : Research should be designed in a manner that allows the researcher to answer questions about behavioral variability (need a well designed study)
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Leary’s 5 propositions (cont’d) Proposition 4 : The measurement of behavior involves the assessment of behavioral variability Numbers assigned to behavior (i.e. number of drinks consumed) Proposition 5 : Statistical analyses are used to describe and account for the observed variability in the behavioral data
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Leary’s 5 propositions (cont’d) Purpose of statistics : to summarize and answer questions about the behavioral variability we research Two types of statistics 1. Descriptive Statistics 2. Inferential Statistics
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5 (Two purposes of statistics) 1. Descriptive Statistics : Used to summarize and describe the variability in the behavior of participants. Example: mean score, range, percentages (i.e. 75% of subjects were college aged) 2. Inferential Statistics : Used to draw conclusions about the reliability and generalizability of one’s findings. Generalize from sample to population
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Chapter 2notes - Behavioral Variability in Research Chapter...

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