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Chile political system.docx - Chile Political System Chile...

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Chile Political System1Chile Political and Economic SystemCourse:Student’s name:Date:
Chile Political System2Chile Political and Economic SystemThe nation of Chile, just slightly larger than the state of Texas, achieved independencefrom Spain in 1818. Until 1830, theyoung nation was in a state of chaos when Diego Portalesescorted it in the period of the autocratic republic. This period, from 1830-1861, was a time offirm-handed rule tempered by moderation. Traditional landowners and merchants were in controlof a centralized government, and the constitution of 1833 endured until 1925. The Conservatives,though challenged by a strengthening liberal movement begun in the 1840’s, managed tomaintain control until 1873.The Liberals, allied with the Radicals, assumed control from the Conservatives and theperiod from 1875-1885 witnessed considerable modification of the national political institutions.The church lost many privileges, including power over education, suffrage was extended, andministers were made responsible to Congress.During this, Chile’s early nationhood, political change was constitutionally driven andpeaceful, and the resulting stability allowed for a steady economic development. Strong politicalorganization was the deciding factor in Chile’s defeat of Bolivia and Peru in the War of thePacific and subsequent conquest over the indigent Indians in the far reaches of its territory. Thewar yielded a bounty of an expansion of the northern borders; lands which are rich in nitrate andcopper deposits. Chile’s economy was reliant on primary exports of which wheat, copper, andsodium nitrate dominated. The resources from the new lands added to the already strong miningindustry to make Chile’s sodium nitrate deposits the largest in the world(EncyclopediaAmericana, 2002).Following civil war in 1886, a parliamentary style government moved toward anunregulated market economy, which prevailed until 1925. Marred by problems of violent labor
Chile Political System3strikes, the country experienced a rural-to-urban population shift; labor exploitation prospered.Urban industrial expansion followed the new labor force and was geared to providing finishedproducts for the consumer market(Pike, 2002).Under a new Constitution adopted in 1925, presidential rule was reestablished and theseparation of church and state was imposed. New social justice codes were also established.From 1927 until 1929 (the year of the world depression), Chile flourished economically with thegenerous foreign investment of the United States and other foreign capital, as well as, its nearmonopolistic production of sodium nitrate. Then disaster struck.Chile fell into the great world depression of the early thirties while simultaneously, newlydeveloped synthetics drastically reduced world demand for sodium nitrate. Ironically, in 1931,then President Ibanez resigned and a brief period of political instability followed, coinciding withthe depression. Exports dropped by 85% and imports by 80% between 1929 and 1932 (Loveman,

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Term
Spring
Professor
Pasley,JamesF.
Tags
Democracy, Separation of Powers, Chile Political System

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