The Road to Indian Independence.pdf - Adrianna Blubin 9H...

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Adrianna Blubin 9H The Road to Indian Independence Indian History Timeline 1526 - Rise of the Mughal Empire 1600 - Britain’s economic interest grew; East India Company was established. 1707 - Fall of the Mughal Empire 1757 - Battle of Plassey 1800 - European states wanted overseas territory. 1835 - English becomes the official language. 1853 - First Railroad 1857 - Sepoy Mutiny 1858 - British Raj begins. 1877 - Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India. 1885 - Indian National Congress 1906 - Muslim League created. 1914 - Gandhi comes to India/WWI began. 1918 - WWI ended. 1947 - Indian Independence/ Indian and Pakistan Partition. Content Vocabulary Imperialism Sepoy Mutiny Racism“Jewel in the crown” Raj Sepoys Viceroys “Independence means voluntary restraints and discipline, voluntary acceptance of the rule of law” -Mahatma Gandhi
Causes of Imperialism In the nineteenth century, a new phase of Western expansion bagan. European nations began to view Asian and African societies as a source of industrial raw materials and a market for Western manufactured goods. In the 1880s, the desire to colonise overseas territory grew massively. Imperialism, the extension of a nation’s power over other lands, was not new for European nations, and the British were the most successful colonizers of Europe. When Britain’s Industrial Revolution began in the eighteenth century, its success in international trade created a demand for new technologies. But with these new technologies, there were many more factories, but the amount of raw materials and markets were very few. So, they started colonizing overseas territory. However, this wasn’t the only reason for imperialism. Colonies symbolized prestige; if a country did not have many colonies, it meant they were not very powerful, and this would affect their national security. But, the most negative reason by far was superiority. Imperialism was tied to Social Darwinism and racism. Social Darwinists believed that in the struggle between nations, the fit are victorious. Racism is the belief that race determines traits and capabilities. Hence, this made the British think that they were superior to other races. They believed Europeans had a moral duty to civilize the primitive people, which meant spreading christianity, medicine, and education. British Imperialism in India British economic interest in India began in the 1600s, when the British East India Company set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. At first, India’s ruling Mughal Dynasty kept European traders under control. By 1707, however, the Mughal Empire was collapsing. In 1757, Robert Clive led East India Company troops in a decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey. Until 1585, the East India Company was the leading power in India. British expand control over India The East India Company was established with the permission of Queen Elizabeth I in return for a monopoly which gave her exclusive control over trade with India.

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