Running head: PSY-216 Final Project: Milestone One 1 PSY-216 Final Project: Milestone One Alex Michael Hart Southern New Hampshire University
PSY-216 Final Project: Milestone One 2 Abstract This paper is the first milestone in PSY-216’s final project. Within it will be three, intentionally shorter than average literature reviews (as prescribed within the given rubric), created using a provided template, over previously assigned research articles for the chosen topic and track for the final project.
PSY-216 Final Project: Milestone One 3 PSY-216 Final Project: Milestone One The title of the first article is “Birth Order Effects on Personality and Achievement Within Families”. The citation is as follows: Paulhus, D. L., Trapnell, P. D., & Chen, D. (1999, November). Birth Order Effects on Personality and Achievement Within Families. Retrieved from - org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/stable/40063474#metadata_info_tab_contents The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of birth order among siblings in regards to personality development and achievement throughout life. This study relates to personality development directly by analyzing the development of behaviors and traits among siblings, specifically in regards to how it is impacted depending on order of birth. The researchers predicted that there would be discernable effects on perception based on birth order. They predicted firstborns would be seen as conscientious and achievers, and last- borns would be perceived as agreeable, liberal, and rebellious (Paulhus et al., 1999). The authors claims from their research support and align with the theory presented by Frank Sulloway that siblings differences in personality do not directly correlate to birth order and preferential treatment from parents, but rather a “…competition among siblings as they fight for a family niche” (Paulhus et al., p. 482). The variables the researchers looked at varied within four different studies that were conducted. They consisted of participants rating themselves and their siblings in regards to scholastic achievement, rebelliousness, birth order, salience comparison, a student take home package involving the Big Five Factor Model, and an adult (over 40 years of age) take home package evaluating prior evaluations completed with students. These were all measured using a voluntary questionnaire and comparison type of model.
PSY-216 Final Project: Milestone One 4 This type of research has been studied previous to the date of this article. Previous researchers believed to find that there were not any identifiable effects on personality traits and development based on birth order within a family model (Paulhus et al., p. 482). Other studies conducted near the time this article was written and published found mixed results. Overall, results from this article were similar to some of the other research conducted investigating the same broad subject.
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- Fall '15
- Psychology, Big Five personality traits, Psychodynamic Psychology, Shaver, Fransson