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Ch. 1 Research Approaches in Applied SettingsApplied ResearchResearch is the systematicinvestigation and manipulationof variables to identify associations and understand processes that occur in typical contextsApplied research involves systematic investigation related to the pursuit of knowledge in practicalrealms or to solve real-world problemsApplied research is most interested in determining the relationshipbetween independent and dependent variables Independent variablesare the variables manipulated by researchers Dependent variablesare the variables we expect to change given the manipulation Advancements of Science and PracticeApplied research focuses on specific problems of learningand reinforcementin schools, clinics, and communities while also making a directimpact on clients and consumersSingle case designs SCDs) are well suited to answer applied problems that have been acknowledged for decades Interventions found to be effectivein resource rich controlled settings may notbe able to be carried out at the same level of fidelitythus affecting the outcome of the intervention Empirical Verification of Behavior ChangeWhen studies ensure that outcomes are related to your intervention procedures rather than extraneous factors, the study is said to have internal validityExperimental controlshows that the experimental procedures (intervention) and only the experimental procedures are responsible for the behavior change When the change in the dependent variable is causally related to the implementation of the independent variable, the study is said to have functional relationEvidence-Based PracticeEvidence-based practicerefers to intervention procedures that have been scientificallyverified as being effectivefor changing specific behaviorsPractice(as it relates to education) is; “A curriculum, behavioral intervention, systems change, or educational approach designed to be used by families, educators, or studentswith the express expectation that implementation will result in measurable educational, social, behavioral, or physical benefit” (Horner et al., 2005)The research questionshould determine the research method(group, single case, or qualitative) and designchosenThe consistency of defining the target behavior clearly and concisely that way two observers consistently agree on scoring is known as reliabilityReplication is at the heart of the scientific method Characterizing Designs Based on Attributions of CausalityExperimental studies include: A) descriptions of target behavior(s)B) predictions regarding what impact the independent variable will have on thedependent variable
C) appropriate tests to see if the prediction is correctVariables other than the planned independent variable that could result in changes in the dependent variable are threats to internal validity Experimental group design studies participants are randomlyassigned to a study condition (e.g., experimentalgroup or controlgroup)