SPCE 630 Midterm Exam Study Guide.docx - Ch 1 Research...

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Ch. 1 Research Approaches in Applied Settings Applied Research Research is the systematic investigation and manipulation of variables to identify associations and understand processes that occur in typical contexts Applied research involves systematic investigation related to the pursuit of knowledge in practical realms or to solve real-world problems Applied research is most interested in determining the relationship between independent and dependent variables Independent variables are the variables manipulated by researchers Dependent variables are the variables we expect to change given the manipulation Advancements of Science and Practice Applied research focuses on specific problems of learning and reinforcement in schools, clinics, and communities while also making a direct impact on clients and consumers Single case designs SCDs) are well suited to answer applied problems that have been acknowledged for decades Interventions found to be effective in resource rich controlled settings may not be able to be carried out at the same level of fidelity thus affecting the outcome of the intervention Empirical Verification of Behavior Change When studies ensure that outcomes are related to your intervention procedures rather than extraneous factors, the study is said to have internal validity Experimental control shows that the experimental procedures (intervention) and only the experimental procedures are responsible for the behavior change When the change in the dependent variable is causally related to the implementation of the independent variable, the study is said to have functional relation Evidence-Based Practice Evidence-based practice refers to intervention procedures that have been scientifically verified as being effective for changing specific behaviors Practice (as it relates to education) is; “A curriculum, behavioral intervention, systems change, or educational approach designed to be used by families, educators, or students with the express expectation that implementation will result in measurable educational, social, behavioral, or physical benefit” (Horner et al., 2005) The research question should determine the research method (group, single case, or qualitative) and design chosen The consistency of defining the target behavior clearly and concisely that way two observers consistently agree on scoring is known as reliability Replication is at the heart of the scientific method Characterizing Designs Based on Attributions of Causality Experimental studies include: A ) descriptions of target behavior(s) B) predictions regarding what impact the independent variable will have on the dependent variable
C) appropriate tests to see if the prediction is correct Variables other than the planned independent variable that could result in changes in the dependent variable are threats to internal validity Experimental group design studies participants are randomly assigned to a study condition (e.g., experimental group or control group)

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