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Running Head: CLASSICAL ORGANIZATIONAL THEORYMidterm EssaySandra D. AwadLiberty UniversityPADM 501 – B02
CLASSICAL ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY1IntroductionOrganization theory deals with the formal structure, internal workings, and external environment of complex human behavior within organizations. As a field spanning several disciplines, it prescribes how work and workers ought to be organized and attempts to explain the actual consequences of organizational behavior (including individual actions) on work being performed and on the organization itself. (Milakovich, 2013, p.145). Three major contributors to Classical Organizational Theory include Max Weber, Frederick Taylor, and Henri Fayol.Max Weber and the Bureaucratic ModelMax Weber, a German sociologist, was a major contributor to Classical Organizational Theory. Weber’s model was intended to identify the components of a well-structured government bureaucracy. He prescribed the following five key elements: 1. Division of labor and functional specialization—work is divided according to type and purpose, with clear areas of jurisdiction marked out for each working unit and an emphasis on elimination of overlapping and duplication of functions. 2. Hierarchy—a clear vertical chain of command in which each unit is subordinate to the one above it and superior to the one below it. 3. Formal framework of rules and procedures—designed to ensure stability, predictability,and impersonality in bureaucratic operations (and thus equal treatment for all who deal with the organization), as well as reliability of performance. 4. Maintenance of files and other records—to ensure that actions taken are both appropriate to the situation and consistent with past actions in similar circumstances.
CLASSICAL ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY25. Professionalization—employees are (a) appointed (not elected) on the basis of their qualifications and job-related skills, (b) employed full-time and in a career-oriented civil

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