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tforne, devastated home At the conclusion of Spielberg's War of the World . I d h . R . s, Ray, his daugh ter Rache. an 1s son, obb1e are reun·t d . - , I e with the ch ' ld . mother. The soft, muted horns suggest a happy d' 1 ren s . · en ing, but as R and his family tearfully celebrate their reunio th ay n, e camera reve 1 the full extent of the havoc wrought by the 1 . . a s . a ien invaders. What- ever future the Femers may have is uncertain. the story. Contrary to viewers' expectations (if we are familiar with Williams's other work), Williams does not create a musical theme for each of the major characters- although there is a recurring, low-key motif for the tri- pods. Nor does he leave us with one of his memorable "wall of sound" experiences. We are frightened when we see the unfamiliar tripods, and Williams underscores that fear with atonal music, but he also understands that what we see in this movie demands a level of sound ef- fects that necessarily assigns music a secondary role. It's interesting to compare Steven Spielberg's movie adaptation of War of the Worlds with Orson Welles's classic radio adaptation. Spielberg spent some $135 mil- lion to make the movie and employed hundreds of artists and technicians in the fields of sound and special effects. Welles's bud get (estimated at $2,000) paid for his eleven- person radio cast, small crew, and studio orchestra. We cannot easily com pare a blockbuster movie released in 2005 with a radio show broadcast in 1938, not only be- cause of the diffe rences in the two media but also be- cause the radio audience then was less media-savvy than movie aud iences of today. But for anyone who has turned off the light s an d listened to Welles's production-the most famou s of all radio broadcasts-it's clear how he was able to convince millions of people in the audience that aliens had actually landed and that humankind was in mortal danger. At some level Spielberg instinctively understood this because, like Welles, ultimately he cre- ated fright through sound. Functions of Film Sound 343 Functions of Film Sound Primarily so d h 1 . un e ps the filmmaker tell a movte's story by reproducing and intensifying the world that has been partially created by the film's visual elements. A good sound track can make the audience aware of the spatial temporal dimensions of the screen, raise expecta- tions, create rhythm, and develop characters. Either di- rectly or indirectly, these functions give the viewer clues to interpretation and meaning. Sounds that work di- rectly include dialogue, narration, and sound effects (of- ten Foley sounds) that call attention (the characters' or ours) to on-screen or offscreen events. In John Ford's My Darling Clementine (1946), "Doc" Holliday tosses his keys noisily on the hotel desk to un- derscore his desire to leave town if Clementine won't keep her promise to leave before him. In Charles Laugh- ton's The Night of the Hunter (1955), Harry Powell cov- ets the large sum of money that he knows is hidden somewhere around the farm. His stepchildren, John and Pearl, have kept the money hidden

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