The Animated Film.pdf - The Animated Fan 387 The Animated...

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The Animated Film Most fiction and documentary films photograph people and objects in full·sized. lhree.dimensionaJ spaces. As v.•e have seen, the standard sl1ooting speed for such 1;ve-tlc1io11 film· making is usually 24 or 25 frames per second. The Animated Fan 387 A11V11a1ed filn1s are distinguished from Li''e-action ones by the kinds of worl< done at the production stage. Instead of conri11uously filn1ing an ongoing .iction in real tin1e, ani-n1ators create a series of int.ages by shooting one frame al a time. Bet\veen the exposure of each fran1e, the animator changes the subject being phOlograpbed. Daffy Duck isn't a tangible creature you can fih11. but you can fiJ111 a series of slightly different images of Daffy a.'i single fran1es. \\/hen projected. I.he images create illusory n1orion con1parable to that of live-action filmmaking. Anything in the world can 10.108 The animated documentary. A 1ecurring memory image in Woltz v1ith Bashir shows soldiers wading toward an eerily beautiful bombardment be animated b)• nteans of m-o..<fimensional dra\vings.. three·din1ensionaJ objects, or information stored in soft\\•are. As we shall see, digitally created filnts U.'i"ually intitate Lhe various traditional n1ethods of animarion. Because animation is the counterpart to li\•e action. any sort of filn1 that can be shot live can be made using aninlation. We're most fan1iliar with animated fiction fiJms. both shon: and fea:turelength. There are anin1ated documentaries too, usually instructional ones. Animation provides a convenient \YaY of shmving Lhings that are normally not \•isible. such a~ the internal workings of machines or the extremely slo\v changes of geologicaJ fom1arions. \Ve've already seen anin1ation used for charl< and graphs in documentaries such as /11side Job (I0.2). More daringly. after intervie\ving Israeli arn1y veterans, Ari Folman sought to represent their lives and recollections in hallucinatory animated in1agery (10.108). With it"i potential for stylized imagery. animation lends itself readily to experi· mental fllmmaking as well. Many classic experin1ental animated films employ either abstract or associational form. For example. both Oskar Fischlnger and Norman Mclaren made films by choosing a piece of n1usic and arranging abstract shapes to mo\'e in rhythm to the sound track. Types of Traditional Animation The olde."'it type of animated film is drali.'1r animation. Front almost the start of cinema, animators dre\v and photographed long series of cartoon images. Al firsL they drew on paper, but copying the entire image, including the setting, over and over proved too time consuming. During the 19 I Os. animators started using clear rectangular sheets of celluloid, nicknamed eels. Characters and objects could be dra\vn on different refs. and these oould then be layered like a sand\vich on top of an opaque painted setting. The whole stack of eels would then be photographed. New eels sho\ving the characters and objects in slightly differe.nt positions could then be placed over the

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