Sensation Perception - Unit 6 Sensation Perception...

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Unit 6: Sensation Perception Sensation is the process by which our sensory receptors receive stimuli from the environment and brings it up to the brain Sensory receptors are located in our sense organ will take information and send it to the brain to be processed - Organ responsible for sense of touch is the skin - Lips have the most sensory receptors Basic Principles in Sensing the World Threshold- boundary or an edge Absolute threshold- the smallest (minimal) intensity of stimulation that must be present to be detected, at least detected 50% of the time Ex. Radio is at smallest decibel; sometimes can hear (50% of the time) = absolute threshold if it was lower and cannot hear 50% of the time = lower than threshold Average absolute threshold for the senses (but everyone has different thresholds): Sight- a single candle flame 30 miles away on a clear dark night Hearing: a tick of a watch 20 feet away Taste: one teaspoon of sugar in two gallons of water Smell: one drop of perfume in a 3 room apartment Touch: a wing of bee on the cheek 1cm away Subliminal stimuli- stimuli that is below your absolute threshold - Studies have shown that people do pick up subliminal ads but does not actually persuade you do whatever the ad says - A microscopic stimuli is a subliminal stimulus because its way below our threshold Signal detection theory- looks that psychological factors that impacts our ability to identify stimuli - Grow out cold war era best method of defense is detecting the bomb to prevent Factors: Expectation Importance Alertness Environment
Experience Difference threshold- the smallest amount of difference that a person can detect; referred as just noticeable difference (JND) How much enough between two stimuli to notice the difference Weber’s law- states that the JND is a constant proportion of magnitude of an additional stimulus, so for a person to detect JND, the two stimuli must be different by a constant minimum percentage, NOT constant amount How much difference: Weight- 2% Sound- .3% Sight- 8% Transduction (applies to all senses except for smell) - Sensory energy being converted/ transferred into neuroimpulses or neuro energy to the brain Vision Light- stimulus that produces vision; can’t have vision without light made up of electromagnetic waves with various wavelengths and amplitudes called a visual spectrum - Human eye can pick up to 400- 750 nanometers - Animals can pick up - 750 produces red - 400 violet - Light waves are not colored eyes and brain that picks up visual spectrum and creates color for us; color is s mind construct - Color blind = brain cannot process color - Wave length gives color and amplitude gives depth and saturation Contents of the eye Traveling light Cornea- clear budge; protective layer of the eye - Protect; bend light and is filled with nerve endings Pupil- dark opening that changing size depending on incoming light - Iris (colored part of eye) a muscle that controls part of pupil Lens- oval transparent structure which continues to bend light rays to focus on the back of the eye (retina)
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