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Employee Engagement: A Conceptual Framework 56 Chapter -3 Employee Engagement: A Conceptual Framework In the previous chapter, the researcher has discussed the review of available and published literature on the subject of employee engagement. The review has been presented in different sections such as meaning and concept of employee engagement, importance and factors influencing employee engagement, employee engagement in hospitality industry and impact of employee engagement on organizational performance. The present chapter deals with the concept of employee engagement, nature and importance of employee engagement for an organization. Researcher also presented theories and models of employee engagement along with its various drivers and barriers. The chapter ends with antecedent and consequences of employee engagement and measures to improve the level of engagement among the employees in the organizations. 3.1 Introduction Employee engagement has emerged as a popular organizational concept in recent years. It has become one of the most leading priorities of human resource practitioners and senior managers in the organization today in the corporate world (Bhatla, 2011). Employee engagement has generated great deal of attention among many human resource practitioners, business entrepreneurs and academic researchers across the globe (Larkin, 2009; Sharma & Anupama, 2010). Human resources are important assets of every organization. The success or failure of the organizations is largely dependent upon employees working in it (Khan, 2013). In this era of globalization and industrialization, where there is large scale competition in the market, it is necessary for the organization to have engaged workforce for the survival and smooth functioning of the organization. Employee engagement is considered as an important technique that is commonly used now a days in the corporate world, mainly in service industry. The term employee engagement was firstly used by the Gallup Consulting Firm. Later, it has been used by academia. Kahn (1990) was the first academic researcher to use the term employee engagement and defines that employee engagement is the level of dedication and involvement of the employees
Employee Engagement: A Conceptual Framework 57 towards their organization. Many organizations and consulting firms consider employee engagement as similar to other important work-related constructs like job satisfaction, job involvement, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour (Kumar & Swetha, 2011). Today the business scenario is changing both in terms of the global nature of work and diversity of the workforce. Each and every organization across the globe wants to make the best utilization of its human resources in order to achieve competitive advantage in the market (Heaney, 2010). When employees are engaged in their work, they have good relationships with their co-workers and working environment becomes better. An engaged workplace encourages commitment and energy among the employees of the organization to