Chapter 5.pdf - Chapter 5 Imperial Reforms and Colonial...

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Chapter 5: Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests 1763 - 1774 The Bostonians Paying the Excise-man or Tarring and Feathering o Shows five Patriots tarring and feathering the Commissioner of Customs, John Malcolm, a sea captain, army officer, and staunch Loyalist - colonists in America who were loyal to Great Britain § Represents the animosity toward those who supported royal authority and illustrates the high tide of unrest in the colonies after the British government imposed a series of imperial reform measure British hoped to gain greater control over colonial trade and frontier settlement as well as to reduce the administrative cost of the colonies and the enormous debt left by the French and Indian War o Imperial reforms pushed colonists toward separation from the British Empire 5.1 Confronting the National Debt: The Aftermath of the French and Indian War The victory over France also produced major problems within the British Empire, problems that would have serious consequences for British colonists in the Americas o Many Indian tribes had sided with the French (who supplied them with guns) § Pontiac’s Rebellion, highlighted tensions the settlers increasingly interpreted in racial terms o The massive debt the war generated proved to be the most serious issue facing Great Britain § Greater enforcement of imperial trade laws had to be put into place
Problems on the American Frontier Great Britain claimed a vast new expanse of territory o Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, the French territory known as New France had ceased to exist o Much of the land in the American British Empire remained under the control of powerful native confederacies British colonists poured over the Appalachian Mountains to stake claims o Virginia landowners in particular eagerly looked to diversify their holdings beyond tobacco o Westward movement brought settlers into conflict as never before with Indian tribes, such as the Shawnee, Seneca-Cayuga, Wyandot, and Delaware, who increasingly held their ground against any further intrusion by white settlers Many Indians who had sided with France lost a valued trading partner as well as bargaining power over the British o Significantly reduced the amount of gunpowder and ammunition they sold to the Indians, worsening relationships further British troops took over the former French forts but failed to court favor with the local tribes by distributing ample gifts, as the French had done Neolin – Delaware (Lenni Lenape) prophet o Spiritual leader who preached a doctrine of shunning European culture and expelling Europeans from native lands
Pontiac’s Rebellion o Pontiac led a loose coalition of these native tribes against the colonists and the British army o Conflict began when Pontiac and several hundred Ojibwas, Potawatomis, and Hurons laid siege to Fort Detroit o Indian attacks - murder, scalping, dismemberment, and burning at the stake § Stories incited a deep racial hatred among colonists against all Indians o Paxton Boys §

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