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Chapter 4: Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660 - 1763 •Birth of Great Britain (after the union of England and Scotland) oDeveloped into a commercial and military powerhouse oBritish East India Company had gained control over both trade and territory §Slave Trade §Sugar Plantations (in Barbados and Jamaica) oPopulation Growth oAnglo- American colonists considered themselves part of the British Empire in all ways: politically, militarily, religiously (as Protestants), intellectually, and racially oFashions, hairstyles, and furnishings - Identity of proud and loyal British subject 4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies •English subjects on both sides of the Atlantic celebrated the restoration of the English monarchy after a decade of living without a king as a result of the English Civil Wars •Charles II oStrengthening England’s global power oAdded more possessions to England’s North American holdings oEnacted the mercantilist Navigation Acts, although many colonial merchants ignored them because enforcement remained lax Charles II •Charles I oMarried Henrietta Maria (French Catholic) who was not liked by English Protestants (she practiced Catholicism)
•Puritans oStrongly opposed the king’s marriage and his ties to Catholicism •When Parliament tried to contest his edicts (king tried to impose taxes without their consent) Charles I suspended Parliament •English Civil War oPitted the king and his Royalist supporters against Oliver Cromwell and his Parliamentary forces oParliamentary forces gained the upper hand and charged Charles I with treason and beheaded him •Monarchy was dissolved and England became a republic (state without a king) •Oliver Cromwell oHeaded the new English Common wealth and the English Interregnumbegan (time between kings) oAppeared to be taking on the powers of a military dictator •Charles II oMajority of the English people feared an alternate hereditary monarchy in the making after Cromwell’s son came to power, so they asked Charles II to be king oThe return of Charles II is known as the Restoration oCommitted to expanding England’s overseas possessions •Restoration Colonies (established and supported by Charles II)othe Carolinas, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania oStarted as Proprietary Colonies (the king gave each colony to a trusted individual, family, or group)
The Carolinas •Charles II hoped to establish English control of the area between Virginia and Spanish Florida •English plantation owners from the tiny Caribbean island of Barbados migrated to the southern part of Carolina oEstablished Charles Town §Produce livestock for export to the West Indies •Political disagreements split the colony oNorth Carolina §Turned sap from pine trees into turpentine used to waterproof wooden ships §Tobacco oSouth Carolina §Produced rice and indigo •Slavery developed quickly in the Carolinas because many of the early migrants came from Barbados (where slavery was well established) o