Chapter 4.pdf - Chapter 4 Rule Britannia The English Empire...

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Chapter 4: Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660 - 1763 Birth of Great Britain (after the union of England and Scotland) o Developed into a commercial and military powerhouse o British East India Company had gained control over both trade and territory § Slave Trade § Sugar Plantations (in Barbados and Jamaica) o Population Growth o Anglo- American colonists considered themselves part of the British Empire in all ways: politically, militarily, religiously (as Protestants), intellectually, and racially o Fashions, hairstyles, and furnishings - Identity of proud and loyal British subject 4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies English subjects on both sides of the Atlantic celebrated the restoration of the English monarchy after a decade of living without a king as a result of the English Civil Wars Charles II o Strengthening England’s global power o Added more possessions to England’s North American holdings o Enacted the mercantilist Navigation Acts, although many colonial merchants ignored them because enforcement remained lax Charles II Charles I o Married Henrietta Maria (French Catholic) who was not liked by English Protestants (she practiced Catholicism)
Puritans o Strongly opposed the king’s marriage and his ties to Catholicism When Parliament tried to contest his edicts (king tried to impose taxes without their consent) Charles I suspended Parliament English Civil War o Pitted the king and his Royalist supporters against Oliver Cromwell and his Parliamentary forces o Parliamentary forces gained the upper hand and charged Charles I with treason and beheaded him Monarchy was dissolved and England became a republic (state without a king) Oliver Cromwell o Headed the new English Common wealth and the English Interregnum began (time between kings) o Appeared to be taking on the powers of a military dictator Charles II o Majority of the English people feared an alternate hereditary monarchy in the making after Cromwell’s son came to power, so they asked Charles II to be king o The return of Charles II is known as the Restoration o Committed to expanding England’s overseas possessions Restoration Colonies (established and supported by Charles II) o the Carolinas, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania o Started as Proprietary Colonies (the king gave each colony to a trusted individual, family, or group)
The Carolinas Charles II hoped to establish English control of the area between Virginia and Spanish Florida English plantation owners from the tiny Caribbean island of Barbados migrated to the southern part of Carolina o Established Charles Town § Produce livestock for export to the West Indies Political disagreements split the colony o North Carolina § Turned sap from pine trees into turpentine used to waterproof wooden ships § Tobacco o South Carolina § Produced rice and indigo Slavery developed quickly in the Carolinas because many of the early migrants came from Barbados (where slavery was well established) o

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