Goebbels Mastermind of the Third Reich.pdf - David Irving...

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Unformatted text preview: David Irving is the son of a Royal Navy commander. Educated at Imperial College of Science & Technology and at University College London, he subsequently spent a year in Germany working in a Ruhr steel mill and perfecting his fluency in the language. Among his thirty books the best-known include Hitler’s War, The Trail of the Fox: The Life of Field-Marshal Rommel, Accident: The Death of General Sikorski, The Rise and Fall of the Luftwaffe, and Göring: a Biography. He has also translated several books by other authors. He lives in Windsor, and has raised five daughters. David Irving Goebbels Mastermind of the Third Reich “David Irving is in the first rank of Britain’s historical chroniclers”– the times F In Memory of Michael Sheppard Who Climbed Too Far Copyright © 1996 Parforce (UK) Ltd. All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted save with written permission of the author in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act 1956 (as amended). Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. This edition first published 1996 by Focal Point Publications, Duke Street, London W1M 5DJ Reprinted December 1997 and January 2012 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN •••• Printed and bound in Great Britain by Anthony Rowe Ltd Contents Acknowledgments Preface: The ‘Real Insidiousness’ Prologue: The Mark of Cain 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: I: The Hater Eros Awakes Prodigal Son ‘A Wandering Scholar, I’ The Little Agitator God Disposes Otherwise vii xv xxi of Mankind 3 13 17 26 32 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 16: 17: 18: 19: II: The Gauleiter The Opium Den Fighting the Ugly Dragon Anka is to Blame Conjuring up Spirits A Rather Obstinate Gentleman The Nightmare Hold the Flag High His Week in Court A Blonde in the Archives Maria Magdalena Quandt The Stranger and the Shadow The Man of Tomorrow Follow that Man ‘It’s All Fixed!’ 20: 21: 22: 23: 24: 25: 26: 27: III: The Reich The Big Lie Bonfire of the Books Twilight of the Gods and Tally-ho Inkpot Hero While Crowds Exult below A Man of Property Femme Fatale The Round Table of Berlin 43 56 65 70 78 84 90 99 107 113 123 133 141 150 Minister 157 166 176 188 198 211 216 224 28: 29: 30: 31: 32: 33: 34: 35: Something about March The Gambler Duty put on Hold The Real Chum Broken Glass On the Verge Put Poland on Page Two Pact with the Devil 36: 37: 38: 39: 40: 41: 42: 43: 44: 45: 46: 47: 48: 49: 50: 51: 52: 53: 54: 55: IV: The Propaganda War The Principles of Propaganda Knocking out Front Teeth Breaking Even A Few Choice Drops of Poison The Malodorous Thing No Room for Two of Us Exodus A Fate Which Beggars Description At any Price The Road to Stalingrad Things have not Panned out Sin Will Pluck on Sin The Katyn Massacre The First Battle of Berlin The White Suit Bespattered When the Going gets Tough The Long-Awaited Day Valkyrie Total War 56: 57: 58: 59: V: The Loyal The Specter of the Hangman Kill off the Prisoners Death of Another Empress The Man of the Century Epilogue: “Ever at your Side’ 528 Notes to Sources Abbreviations used in Notes Appendix: Janke, Arlosorov, and Friedländer Index 535 693 696 699 235 247 258 265 271 283 293 303 Warrior 315 326 331 340 350 360 366 376 385 394 401 410 420 429 437 445 454 463 471 479 Henchman 491 499 508 514 acknowledgements Acknowledgments W riting this biography, I have lived in the evil shadow of Dr Joseph Goebbels for over seven years. Four years into the ordeal, I had the immense good fortune to become the first – and so far only – person to open the complete microfiche record, made by the Nazis in 1944–45, of Goebbels’ entire private diaries and papers from 1923 to 1945; the Red Army had placed these in the Soviet secret state archives in Moscow. There they languished until the ninety or so original Agfa boxes containing the 1,600 glass plates, on which Goebbels had had the diaries filmed for safety, were discovered by the Goebbels diaries expert Dr Elke Fröhlich in March 1992. (On behalf of all historians of the period I place on record here our gratitude for the work she has done on the diaries.) I was able to use the diaries in June and July of the same year, probably the first person to have untied the original knots on those boxes since 1945. With the support of Dr V. P. Tarasov, chief of the Russian Federation’s archives, and Dr V. N. Bondarev, chief of the former Soviet secret state archives, I was able to retrieve or copy some five hundred pages of the most important missing passages of the diary, including Goebbels’ first diary begun in 1923, the 1933 Reichstag fire, the 1934 Röhm putsch, the 1938 Kristallnacht, the months before the outbreak of war in 1939 and many other historically significant episodes. The conditions in these archives in Moscow’s Viborg Street were, it must be said, challenging: Soviet archives were designed for keeping things secret, and the very notion of a public research room was alien to Soviet archivists. This one had no microfilm or microfiche reader. After struggling to read the 1,600 fragile glass microfiches (some 75,000 pages) with a thumbnail-sized 12x magnifier on my first visit, I was able, through the generosity of the London Sunday Times, to donate a sophisticated film and fiche reader to the Russians on my second visit; the bulky machine arrived back in London, without explanation, one day after I did in July 1992. What followed was a less enlightened episode. I provided extracts from these diaries to Times Newspapers Ltd in Britain. The Sunday Times published them along with Der Spiegel in Germany and other major newspapers around the world. I also donated complete sets to the German federal archives (Bundesarchiv) in Koblenz and to the archives of Goebbels’ native city Mönchengladbach. Nevertheless, while the international press celebrated the acknowledgements retrieval of the long-lost diaries many rival historians registered something approaching a cry of pain. Their injured professional amour propre proved infectious. While spending half a million pounds promoting its serialization of the diaries’ scoop, the Sunday Times mentioned the name of the person who acquired them, myself, in the smallest type-size known to man; Der Spiegel printed the series for five weeks without mentioning him at all. A Berlin university historian, whose team has been laboring for years on the other volumes of the diaries, reported at length on the ‘new find’ to a symposium in the United States, again without reference to either Dr Fröhlich, the discoverer – to whom all real credit is due– or to myself.* The directors of Piper Verlag, Munich, who a few weeks later published an abridged popular edition of the other Goebbels Diaries,† deplored in a German television news bulletin that ‘Mr Irving of all people’ should have exclusively obtained these sensational missing diaries – and failed to mention either then or in their publication that without reward I had at the last minute made one hundred pages available with which they had filled aching gaps in their publication. Even more lamentable have been the actions of the German government’s federal archives, the Bundesarchiv, to which I also donated many Goebbels documents, including a set of all the diaries I retrieved in Moscow. On the instructions of the minister of the interior, on July 1, 1993 the archive banished me forever from its halls, without notice, two hours before the conclusion of my seven years of research on this subject. It had earlier provided a hundred photos at my expense – but on the minister’s instructions it now refused to supply caption information for them. When I requested the Transit-Film Corporation, which inherited the copyrights of Third Reich movie productions, to provide still photographs of the leading actors and actresses who play a part in the Goebbels story, the firm cautiously inquired of Professor Friedrich Kahlenberg, head of the Bundesarchiv, whether ‘special considerations’ might apply against helping me! (A copy of this letter fortuitously came into my hands, but not the pictures I had requested.) The background can only be surmised. Professor Kahlenberg had hurried to Moscow in July 1992 – too late to prevent the Russians from granting me access to the coveted microfiches of the Goebbels Diaries. (There was no reason why the Russians should have denied me access: Several of my books, including those on Arctic naval operations and on Nazi nuclear research, have been published by Soviet printing houses.) The Bundesarchiv has justified its * Dr Jürgen Michael Schulz, of the Berlin Free University, ‘Zur Edition der Goebbels Tage- bücher,’ a paper presented to the German Studies Association conference, 1992. See its Newsletter, xvii, No. 2, winter 1992, 34ff. † Dr Ralf Georg Reuth (ed.), Joseph Goebbels Tagebücher, five vols (Munich, Zürich, 1992) acknowledgements banishment, which is without parallel in any other archives, on the ground that my research might harm the interests of the Federal Republic of Germany. The ban has prevented me from verifying my colleagues’ questionable transcriptions of certain key words in the handwritten diaries. I had a list of twenty such words which I wished to double-check against the original negatives; pleading superior orders, the Bundesarchiv’s deputy director, Dr Siegfried Büttner, refused to allow even this brief concluding labor. As one consequence, evidently unforeseen by the German government, the Bundesarchiv has had to return to England its ‘Irving Collection,’ half a ton of records which I had deposited in its vaults for researchers over the last thirty years. These include originals of Adolf Eichmann’s papers, copies of two missing years of Heinrich Himmler’s diary, the diaries of Erwin Rommel, Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Canaris, and Walther Hewel, and a host of other papers not available elsewhere. i hasten to add that with this one exception every international archive has accorded to me the kindness and unrestricted access to which I have become accustomed in thirty years of historical research. I would particularly mention the efforts of Dr David G. Marwell, director of the American-controlled Berlin Document Center (B.D.C.), in supplying to me 1,446 pages of biographical documents relating to Goebbels’ staff. However, these now, like the collections formerly archived in Moscow and in the D.D.R., also come under the arbitrary aegis of the Bundesarchiv. Marwell’s predecessor, the late Richard Bauer, provided me with the B.D.C.’s file on Goebbels (my film DI-81).* In the German socialist party’s Friedrich Ebert Stiftung in Bonn, deputy archivist Dr Ulrich Cartarius generously granted to me privileged access to the original handwritten diary of Viktor Lutze, chief of staff of the S.A. (1934-43), on which he was currently working. Karl Höffkes of Essen kindly let me use the Julius Streicher diary and papers in his private archives. The Yivo Institute for Jewish Research in New York also allowed me to exploit their Record Group 215, which houses a magnificent collection of original files of propaganda ministry documents, including Goebbels’ own bound volumes of press clippings. I must also mention my Italian publishers, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, and their senior editor Dr Andrea Cane, who made available to me for transcription Goebbels’ entire handwritten 1938 diary – it was a two-year task, but without that ‘head start’ in reading Goebbels’ formidable script I should have been unable to make the sense of the Moscow cache that I did. This is also the proper place to thank my friend and rival Dr Ralf Georg Reuth, author of an earlier Goebbels biography, for unselfishly transferring to me a copy of Horst Wessel’s * I have referred where relevant to my microfilm collection in the source notes to this work. Most can be ordered from Microform Academic Publishers Ltd., Main Street, East Ardsley, Wakefield, West Yorkshire WF3 2AT, England (tel. +44 1924 825 700; fax 829 212).  acknowledgements diary and substantial parts of the 1944 Goebbels diary, to which I added from Moscow and other sources. The attitude of the other German official archives was very different from that of the Bundesarchiv in Koblenz. Dr Holder, president of the German federal statistics agency (Statistisches Bundesamt) in Wiesbaden, provided essential data on Jewish population movements with reference to Berlin. Two staff members (Lamers and Kunert) of the Mönchengladbach archives provided several of the early school photos and snapshots of girlfriends reproduced in this work. Andre Mieles of the Deutsches Institut für Filmkunde (German Institute of Cinematography) provided many of the original movie stills and other fine photographs of movie stars. I owe thanks to Tadeusz Duda and the Jagiellonski Library of University of Krakow, Poland, for the photographs reproduced from Horst Wessel’s diary in their custody. Dr Werner Johe of the Forschungsstelle für die Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus (Research Office for the History of National Socialism) in Hamburg volunteered data from the diary of Gauleiter Albert Krebs. Karl Heinz Roth of the Hamburg Stiftung für Sozialgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts (Foundation for the Social History of the Twentieth Century) assisted me in dating certain episodes in 1934. The state archives of Lower Saxony (Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv) in Wolfenbüttel let me read Leopold Gutterer’s papers and I am glad to have been able to interview Dr Gutterer, now over ninety, on several occasions for this book. I was fortunate to obtain access to the papers of Eugen Hadamowsky as well as those of Joseph and Magda Goebbels and of the propaganda ministry itself at the Zentrales Staatsarchiv in Potsdam while it was still in the communist zone of Germany; most of the files – e.g. vol. 765, Goebbels’ letters to his colleagues at the front – had remained untouched since last being used by Dr Helmut Heiber in 1958. In those last dramatic days before November 1989, archivist Dr Kessler gave me unlimited access despite cramped circumstances; those files too have now passed under the less liberal control of the Bundesarchiv. Although any biographer of Goebbels owes a debt to Dr Helmut Heiber, who first trod the paths to the papers in Potsdam, he will forgive me for not using his otherwise excellent published volumes of Goebbels’ speeches; often important phrases – faithfully reported by local British and other diplomats in the audiences – were omitted from the published texts on which Heiber relies; these diplomatic records, as well as other important documents, I have extracted from the holdings of the Public Record Office in London, capably helped by Susanna Scott-Gall as a research assistant. Shortly before its completion Manfred Müller, an expert of the early years of the Goebbels family, generously commented on my manuscript and let me read his own biography of Hans Goebbels, the brother of the Reichsminister. The Institut für Zeitgeschichte (I.f.Z.) in Munich gave me the run of its library and archives and made available to me its files of press clippings on acknowledgements Nazi personalities. But here too a possessiveness, an unseemly territorialism came into play as the I.f.Z. contrived to protect its virtual monopoly in unpublished fragments of the Goebbels diaries. Before coming across the Moscow cache, I had asked the I.f.Z., while researching there in 1992, for access to its Goebbels diaries holdings for the two years 1939 and 1944; on May 13 the director of the I.f.Z. refused in writing, stating that it was the institute’s strict and invariable practice not to make available ‘to outsiders’ collections that it was still processing. This was why – since I could not conceive of completing the biography properly without those volumes – I travelled to Moscow, where I had learned that the original Nazi microfiches were housed; here I accessed, to the Munich institute’s chagrin, not only the volumes for 1939 and 1944 but the entire diaries from 1923 to 1945 – though not before the institute, in an attempt to secure my eviction, had urgently faxed to Moscow on July 3, 1992 the allegation, which it many weeks later honourably withdrew,* that I was stealing from the Soviet archives. Foul play indeed – methods of which Dr Goebbels himself would probably have been proud. That was not all. A few days later, hearing that the Sunday Times intended to publish the diaries which I had found in Moscow, the same institute, with a haste that would have been commendable under other circumstances, furnished to journalists on the Daily Mail, a tabloid English newspaper, the diary material which it had denied to me two months earlier: as of course they were entitled to. There was one pleasing denouement. The tabloid newspaper – which had paid out £20,000 in anticipation of its scoop – found that neither it nor its hired historians could read the minister’s notoriously indecipherable handwriting. It abandoned its serialization in impotent fury two days later. of course this biography is not based on Dr Goebbels’ writings alone. In no particular sequence, I must make mention of Andrzej Suchcitz of the Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum in London who provided to me important assistance on the provenance of Goebbels’ revealing secret speech about the Final Solution of September 1942; the George Arents library at the university of Syracuse, N.Y., who allowed me to research in the Dorothy Thompson papers; and to Geoffrey Wexler, Reference Archivist of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, who gave access to Louis P. Lochner’s papers, copies of some of which are also housed in the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library at Hyde Park, N.Y. I also owe thanks to the latter library for the use of other collections including William B. Donovan’s papers and the ‘presidential safe files;’ I used more of Donovan’s papers at the U.S. Army Military History Institute at Carlisle, Pa. Dr G. Arlettaz of the Swiss federal archives in Berne, Dr Sven Welander of the League of Nations archives at the United Nations in Geneva, and Didier Grange of the Geneva city archives provided valuable information and photographs on Goebbels’ ‘diplomatic’ visit to Geneva in 1933. * Süddeutsche Zeitung, July 22, 1992. acknowledgements In Germany I was greatly helped by the officials of the Nuremberg state archive, which houses reports on the postwar interrogations of leading propaganda ministry and other officials (some of which I also read at the National Archives in Washington D.C., where my friends John Taylor and Robert Wolfe provided the same kindly and expert guidance as they have shown for several decades). Dr Howard B. Gotlieb, director of the Mugar Memorial Library at Boston university, drew my attention to their collection of the papers of the former Berlin journalist Bella Fromm. Archivist Margaret Petersen and assistant archivist Marilyn B. Kann at the Hoover Library at Stanford university, California, allowed me to see their precious trove of original Goebbels diaries as well as the political-warfare papers of Daniel Lerner and Fritz Theodor Epstein. The Seeley Mudd Library of Princeton university let me see their precious Adolf Hitler collection, although they were not, alas, permitted to open to me their Allen Dulles papers, which contain several files on Goebbels and the July 1944 bomb plot. Bernard R. Crystal of the Butler Library of Columbia university, N.Y., found several Goebbels items tucked away in the H. R. Knickerbocker collection. Dr Jay W. Baird, of Miami university, Ohio, volunteered access to his confidential manuscripts on Werner Naumann, whom he had interviewed at length on tape in 1969 and 1970; the manuscripts are c...
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