Standing Rock Civil Disobedience MLA Essay.pdf - Cannon\u200b \u200b1 Isapela\u200b \u200bCannon Mrs.\u200b \u200bDodd AP\u200b \u200bEnglish\u200b \u200bIII 29\u200b \u200bOctober\u200b

Standing Rock Civil Disobedience MLA Essay.pdf -...

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Unformatted text preview: Cannon​ ​1 Isapela​ ​Cannon Mrs.​ ​Dodd AP​ ​English​ ​III 29​ ​October​ ​2017 Standing​ ​Rock​ ​Pipeline​ ​Civil​ ​Disobedience In​ ​December​ ​2014,​ ​the​ ​Texan​​ ​Energy​ ​Transfer​ ​Partners​ ​LP​ ​applied​ ​for​ ​a​ ​1,172​ ​mile​ ​long multi-state​ ​oil​ ​pipeline​ ​that​ ​would​ ​carry​ ​570,000​ ​barrels​ ​across​ ​sacred​ ​Sioux​ ​Standing​ ​Rock Tribe​ ​land;​ ​the​ ​pipeline​ ​was​ ​approved​ ​by​ ​President​ ​Trump​ ​on​ ​February​ ​7,​ ​2017.​ ​With​ ​the​ ​direct violation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Clean​ ​Water​ ​Act,​ ​the​ ​14th​ ​Amendment,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Fort​ ​Laramie​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​1851,​ ​the implementation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​LP​ ​pipeline​ ​directly​ ​infringes​ ​on​ ​the​ ​rights​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Sioux​ ​Standing​ ​Rock Tribe​ ​in​ ​South​ ​Dakota.​ ​With​ ​the​ ​pipeline’s​ ​approval​ ​by​ ​President​ ​Trump​ ​and​ ​numerous​ ​federal officials,​ ​the​ ​US​ ​government​ ​shows​ ​support​ ​for​ ​the​ ​unjust​ ​encroachment​ ​of​ ​sacred​ ​indigenous lands​ ​in​ ​pursuit​ ​of​ ​money​ ​and​ ​more​ ​oil. On​ ​March​ ​11,​ ​2016​ ​the​ ​proposed​ ​multi-state​ ​pipeline​ ​was​ ​approved​ ​by​ ​all​ ​four​ ​affected states,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​Texan​ ​oil​ ​company​ ​failed​ ​to​ ​gain​ ​the​ ​approval​ ​of​ ​the​ ​tribe’s​ ​government​ ​to​ ​build the​ ​pipeline​ ​on​ ​sacred​ ​indigenous​ ​land.​ ​With​ ​the​ ​placement​ ​of​ ​the​ ​pipeline,​ ​the​ ​main​ ​water source​ ​of​ ​the​ ​tribe​ ​is​ ​at​ ​risk,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​tribe​ ​will​ ​be​ ​slowly​ ​pushed​ ​further​ ​off​ ​of​ ​the​ ​reservation,​ ​yet the​ ​Sioux​ ​government​ ​is​ ​not​ ​being​ ​consulted​ ​despite​ ​the​ ​significant​ ​effect​ ​that​ ​the​ ​pipeline​ ​will have​ ​on​ ​the​ ​tribe’s​ ​resources​ ​and​ ​land.​ ​On​ ​November​ ​18,​ ​2016,​ ​the​ ​Sioux​ ​tribe​ ​petitioned​ ​to reroute​ ​the​ ​pipeline​ ​but​ ​the​ ​Texan​ ​company​ ​refused​ ​to​ ​compromise​ ​by​ ​stating​ ​that,​ ​“​The project..will​ ​have​ ​no​ ​permanent​ ​effect​ ​to​ ​vegetation,​ ​fisheries,​ ​wildlife,​ ​migratory​ ​birds,​ ​listed species​ ​or​ ​their​ ​habitat,”​ ​and​ ​will​ ​not​ ​impact,​ ​“surface​ ​water,​ ​groundwater,​ ​or​ ​[bodies​ ​of​ ​water],” Cannon​ ​2 in​ ​their​ ​environmental​ ​report​ ​addressed​ ​to​ ​discouraged​ ​environmentalists​ ​(Bubenik).​ ​The pipelines​ ​establishment​ ​on​ ​indian​ ​land​ ​directly​ ​violates​ ​the​ ​Clean​ ​Water​ ​Act​ ​which​ ​applies​ ​to​ ​all American​ ​citizens​ ​-​ ​Native​ ​Americans​ ​included.​ ​The​ ​Clean​ ​Water​ ​Act​ ​deems​ ​it​ ​unlawful​ ​for​ ​any person​ ​to,​ ​“Discharge​ ​any​ ​pollutant​ ​from​ ​a​ ​point​ ​source​ ​into​ ​navigable​ ​waters,”​ ​unless​ ​a​ ​permit​ ​is obtained​ ​under​ ​its​ ​provisions​ ​and​ ​an​ ​approval​ ​from​ ​the​ ​regional​ ​government​ ​is​ ​met​ ​(EPA)​.​ ​The act​ ​also,​ ​“[Establishes]​ ​water​ ​quality​ ​criteria,​​ ​within​ ​the​ ​US​ ​and​ ​aids​ ​environmentalists​ ​by enforcing​ ​clean​ ​water​ ​standards​ ​in​ ​various​ ​sized​ ​bodies​ ​of​ ​water​ ​(EPA).​ ​Without​ ​the​ ​approval​ ​of the​ ​tribal​ ​government,​ ​the​ ​pipeline’s​ ​construction​ ​unlawfully​ ​pollutes​ ​Lake​ ​Sakakawea​ ​and​ ​Lake Oahe,​ ​both​ ​which​ ​are​ ​ ​considered​ ​Sioux​ ​Sacred​ ​sites. With​ ​the​ ​construction​ ​of​ ​the​ ​pipeline​ ​rushed​ ​by​ ​American​ ​government​ ​officials​ ​and President​ ​Trump,​ ​the​ ​construction​ ​directly​ ​violates​ ​the​ ​Fourteenth​ ​Amendment​ ​of​ ​the​ ​US Constitution.​ ​The​ ​14th​ ​Amendment​ ​states​ ​that,​ ​“All​ ​persons​ ​born​ ​or​ ​naturalized​ ​in​ ​the​ ​United States..​ ​are​ ​citizens​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States,”​ ​and​ ​that​ ​no​ ​state​ ​has​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​enforce​ ​a​ ​law​ ​that abridges​ ​the​ ​privileges​ ​or,​ ​“[deprives]​ ​any​ ​person​ ​of​ ​life,​ ​liberty,​ ​or​ ​property..​ ​[or]​ ​equal protection​ ​[under]​ ​the​ ​laws,”​ ​of​ ​the​ ​constitution​ ​(Editors).​ ​Despite​ ​the​ ​tribes​ ​situation​ ​on​ ​indian reservation​ ​land,​ ​they​ ​are​ ​still​ ​legally​ ​protected​ ​under​ ​the​ ​rights​ ​of​ ​the​ ​constitution​ ​as​ ​they​ ​were born​ ​on​ ​US​ ​soil​ ​and​ ​have​ ​remained​ ​in​ ​the​ ​US​ ​legally.​ ​Even​ ​though​ ​multiple​ ​attempts​ ​for compromise​ ​were​ ​made​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Sioux,​ ​the​ ​Energy​ ​Transfer​ ​Company​ ​refused​ ​to​ ​reroute​ ​the pipeline​ ​off​ ​of​ ​indian​ ​reservation​ ​as​ ​it​ ​was​ ​supposedly​ ​‘too​ ​late’,​ ​months​ ​before​ ​construction began.​ ​Although​ ​the​ ​involved​ ​state​ ​governments​ ​approved​ ​the​ ​construction​ ​of​ ​the​ ​pipeline,​ ​the land​ ​is​ ​legally​ ​reserved​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Sioux​ ​and​ ​must​ ​be​ ​sanctioned​ ​for​ ​change​ ​by​ ​their​ ​government​ ​and people​ ​before​ ​the​ ​state​ ​government​ ​proceeds,​ ​even​ ​with​ ​Trump’s​ ​signed​ ​approval​ ​to​ ​continue Cannon​ ​3 construction.​ ​With​ ​President​ ​Trump’s​ ​signed​ ​approval,​ ​he​ ​directly​ ​condones​ ​the​ ​obstruction​ ​and encroachment​ ​of​ ​the​ ​individual​ ​rights​ ​of​ ​American​ ​citizens​ ​protected​ ​under​ ​the​ ​14th Amendment. The​ ​implementation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​pipeline​ ​also​ ​breaks​ ​the​ ​Fort​ ​Laramie​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​1851.​ ​The treaty​ ​was​ ​constituted​ ​between​ ​the​ ​Dakota​ ​and​ ​Lakota​ ​people​ ​and​ ​the​ ​US​ ​government​ ​to, “​Assign​ ​each​ ​tribe​ ​a​ ​defined​ ​territory​ ​where​ ​they​ ​were​ ​to​ ​remain,”​ ​and​ ​“[define]​ ​territory​ ​for each​ ​tribal​ ​group​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​end​ ​inter-tribal​ ​rivalry,”​ ​but​ ​also​ ​to​ ​delineate​ ​which​ ​territory belonged​ ​to​ ​the​ ​tribal​ ​governments​ ​and​ ​which​ ​belonged​ ​to​ ​the​ ​US​ ​government​ ​(Howe).​ ​With​ ​this treaty​ ​in​ ​place,​ ​the​ ​federal​ ​and​ ​state​ governments​ ​are​ ​required​ ​to​ ​obtain​ ​the​ ​approval​ ​of​ ​the​ ​tribe before​ ​any​ ​economic​ ​or​ ​environmental​ ​changes​ ​are​ ​made​ ​to​ ​their​ ​land​ ​because​ ​the​ ​land technically​ ​belongs​ ​to​ ​the​ ​tribal​ ​governments.​ ​With​ ​the​ ​ruin​ ​of​ ​their​ ​sacred​ ​lands,​ ​the​ ​Sioux began​ ​peaceful​ ​protests​ ​but​ ​were​ ​quickly​ ​shut​ ​down​ ​by​ ​officials​ ​with​ ​pepper​ ​spray​ ​and​ ​brutal beatings.​ ​Along​ ​with​ ​the​ ​illegal​ ​disruption​ ​of​ ​their​ ​lands,​ ​numerous​ ​archeological​ ​artifacts​ ​were found​ ​near​ ​the​ ​proposed​ ​site​ ​of​ ​the​ ​pipeline,​ ​leading​ ​to​ ​larger​ ​environmentalist​ ​riots​ ​against​ ​the unjust​ ​construction​ ​of​ ​the​ ​pipeline.​ ​ ​With​ ​the​ ​unnecessary​ ​violence​ ​against​ ​the​ ​tribe​ ​and​ ​the federal​ ​and​ ​state​ ​governments​ ​failure​ ​to​ ​gain​ ​the​ ​approval​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Sioux​ ​pre-construction,​ ​the obstruction​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Sioux’s​ ​sacred​ ​land​ ​is​ ​unauthorized​ ​and​ ​needs​ ​to​ ​cease. Due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​illegal​ ​desecration​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Standing​ ​Rock​ ​Sioux​ ​land,​ ​the​ ​pipeline​ ​construction must​ ​discontinue​ ​as​ ​it​ ​unlawfully​ ​contravenes​ ​laws​ ​under​ ​the​ ​American​ ​constitution​ ​and​ ​between the​ ​US​ ​and​ ​Sioux​ ​governments.​ ​With​ ​the​ ​approval​ ​from​ ​Trump​ ​and​ ​numerous​ ​governmental officials,​ ​the​ ​US​ ​is​ ​setting​ ​the​ ​example​ ​that​ ​defying​ ​treaties​ ​and​ ​laws​ ​between​ ​indigenous​ ​tribes and​ ​the​ ​US​ ​is​ ​acceptable.​ ​Even​ ​though​ ​the​ ​Sioux​ ​live​ ​on​ ​reservations,​ ​that​ ​we​ ​pushed​ ​them​ ​onto, Cannon​ ​4 they​ ​are​ ​still​ ​natural​ ​born​ ​US​ ​citizens​ ​and​ ​are​ ​protected​ ​under​ ​the​ ​same​ ​laws​ ​that non-reservationists​ ​are​ ​safeguarded​ ​by​ ​and​ ​should​ ​be​ ​treated​ ​as​ ​such. Cannon​ ​5 Works​ ​Cited Bubenik,​ ​Travis.​ ​“Energy​ ​Transfer​ ​Responds​ ​To​ ​Public​ ​Comments​ ​On​ ​Pipeline​ ​Border​ ​Review.” Marfa​ ​Public​ ​Radio​,​ ​29​ ​Sept.​ ​2015, marfapublicradio.org/blog/energy-transfer-responds-to-public-comments-on-pipel ine-border-review/. EPA.​ ​“History​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Clean​ ​Water​ ​Act.”​ ​EPA.gov​, . Editors​ ​of​ ​Encyclopedia​ ​Britannica.​ ​“Fourteenth​ ​Amendment,”​ ​Encyclopedia​ ​Britannica​, Encyclopedia​ ​Britannica,​ ​29​ ​Oct.​ ​2017, . Howe,​ ​Neil​ ​D.​ ​“The​ ​1851​ ​Fort​ ​Laramie​ ​Treaty.”​ ​Nd​ ​Studies​, . Meyer,​ ​Robinson.​ ​“The​ ​Legal​ ​Case​ ​for​ ​Blocking​ ​the​ ​Dakota​ ​Access​ ​Pipeline.”​ ​The​ ​Atlantic​, Atlantic​ ​Media​ ​Company,​ ​9​ ​Sept.​ ​2016, 499178/. Miller,​ ​Ryan​ ​W.​ ​“How​ ​the​ ​Dakota​ ​Access​ ​pipeline​ ​battle​ ​unfolded.”​ ​Usatoday​,​ ​4​ ​Dec.​ ​2016, e-and-protests/94800796/. Worland,​ ​Justin.​ ​“Dakota​ ​Access​ ​Pipeline:​ ​What​ ​to​ ​Know​ ​About​ ​the​ ​Controversy.”​ ​Time​,​ ​Time, time.com/4548566/dakota-access-pipeline-standing-rock-sioux/. ...
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