Groundwater-Paper.pdf - Thematic Papers on Groundwater A Global Framework for f Action Thematic Papers on Groundwater April 2016 The designations

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Unformatted text preview: Thematic Papers on Groundwater A Global Framework for f Action Thematic Papers on Groundwater April 2016 The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO. © FAO, 2016 FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via or addressed to [email protected] FAO information products are available on the FAO website ( ) and can be purchased through [email protected] Table of Contents Acknowledgements Preface Synthesis Report Digest of Thematic Paper 1 Thematic Paper 1 Trends in Groundwater Pollution: Loss of Groundwater Quality and Related Services Digest of Thematic Paper 2 Thematic Paper 2 Conjunctive Use and Management of Groundwater and Surface Water within Existing Irrigation commands: the Need for a New Focus on an Old Paradigm Digest of Thematic Paper 3 Thematic Paper 3 Urban-Rural Tensions and Opportunities for Co-Management Digest of Thematic Paper 4 Thematic Paper 4 Management of Aquifer Recharge and Discharge Processes and Aquifer Storage Equilibrium Digest of Thematic Paper 5 Thematic Paper 5 Groundwater Policy and Governance Digest of Thematic Paper 6 Thematic Paper 6 Legal and Institutional Framework Digest of Thematic Paper 7 Thematic Paper 7 Trends in Local Groundwater Management Institutions Digest of Thematic Paper 8 Thematic Paper 8 Social Adoption of Groundwater Pumping Technology and the Development of Groundwater Cultures: Governance at the Point of Abstraction Digest of Thematic Paper 9 Macro-economic Trends that Influence Demand for Groundwater and Related Services Digest of Thematic Paper 10 Thematic Paper 10 Governance of the Subsurface Space and Groundwater Frontiers Thematic Paper 11 Managing The Invisible: The Governance And Political Economy Of Groundwater Thematic Paper 12 Water And Climate Change: Impacts On Groundwater Resources And Adaptation Options 1 3 5 47 51 127 131 169 173 217 223 275 279 325 329 369 373 421 427 503 507 513 575 705 Acknowledgements The preparation of this collection of Thematic Papers compiling existing knowledge on different aspects of groundwater is the culmination of efforts by a large number of persons. Leading international scientists and experts drafted the papers and upgraded them more than once. Other experts, including participants to Regional Consultation Meetings, and members of the Project Steering Committee reviewed the drafts and provided insightful ideas, in addition to final proof-reading and editing. FAO information technology staff designed the final product. Sincere thanks and deep appreciation are extended to all. This publication is one of the products of the Project “Groundwater Governance – A Global Framework for Action” implemented during the period April 2011- June 2016. The project was conceptualized by the World Bank and formulated under the leadership and supervision of Jacob Burke (FAO Officer at the time), in close consultation with partners. The project joint execution was led by FAO and overseen by a Steering Committee composed of Mohamed Bazza (Coordinator) and Nicoletta Forlano from FAO, Alice Aureli (UNESCO IHP), Shaminder Puri and John Chilton (IAH), Marcus Wijnen and Jacob Burke (World Bank) and Astrid Hillers (GEF). 1 2 Preface This collection of Thematic Papers has been prepared during the first phase of the project “Groundwater Governance – A Global Framework for Action” (2011–2016). This project is a joint effort of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO-IHP), the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the World Bank, and a multitude of scientists and water managers from across the globe. The project is an ambitious effort to raise global awareness on the urgent need for improved groundwater governance, to set the foundations for a global response to this new challenge, and to catalyse the necessary action. The purpose of the Thematic Papers was to compile existing knowledge on groundwater governance in relation to contemporary development themes. This was seen a first step in achieving the project’s objectives to support subsequent project activities. Among others, the papers were scheduled as an input to the project’s five Regional Consultation Meetings that took place between April 2012 and March 2013, to prompt discussions on a broad range of aspects related to groundwater governance and to provide a suitable conceptual structure on groundwater development issues. To this extent it is hoped that the Thematic Papers contributed to achieving a broad agreement on the scientific and economic issues in relation to groundwater governance and to reaching consensus on the scope for future action. By August 2011, a suggested general structure of the papers was defined (Baseline – Diagnostic – Prospects for governance) and ten selected themes had been identified that put a focus on different aspects and adopt different angles of view. Some of the themes deal with scientific-technical aspects (groundwater quality and quantity and approaches to their management), others with the governance and policy process in general or with selected aspects of groundwater governance (context, law, institutions, social and economic aspects). Leading international scientists and experts were subsequently invited to write the papers, and a first version of nine papers (TP1 through 8 and TP10) was available by the end of 2011 or beginning of 2012. In addition, two papers written already for the World Bank were added: TP11 on political economy (draft of 2009) and TP12 on climate change. The project team in late 2012 distilled the core messages from the Thematic Papers and presented them in brief ‘Digests’ of three to four pages each, to facilitate next steps in the project implementation. Additionally, the project team elaborated a Synthesis Report which captures key messages from the Thematic Papers, paying particular attention to the interactions between the different thematic fields, to the main governance issues and constraints, and to the most significant prospects and recommendations for improving groundwater governance. The Synthesis Report does not present a summary of the Thematic Papers. Readers who want to access the information in full detail should consult these papers. The Thematic Papers form together, along with their synthesis report and their digests, a unique volume of knowledge on groundwater governance related to development and environmental themes. The project made an effort to carry out a final editing of the papers and to make the information publicly available to those interested in the future direction of groundwater governance. The Project Steering Committee Rome, March 2016 3 4 Synthesis Report 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures .................................................................................................................................................. 7 List of Tables .................................................................................................................................................... 7 List of Boxes ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 8 2. GROUNDWATER: FACTS AND FEATURES .............................................................................................................. 10 2.1 Some general characteristics of groundwater .................................................................................. 10 2.2 Early exploitation of groundwater .................................................................................................... 10 2.3 Groundwater withdrawal and use in modern times ......................................................................... 10 2.4 Development of non-renewable groundwater resources .................................................................. 13 2.5 Artificial groundwater discharge by drainage ................................................................................... 13 2.6 Ecological and environmental functions of groundwater ................................................................. 14 2.7 Groundwater and land use ................................................................................................................ 14 2.8 Groundwater withdrawal and other uses of the subsurface space and its resources ....................... 14 2.9 Groundwater and its many interdependencies ................................................................................. 14 3. GROUNDWATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND GROUNDWATER GOVERNANCE .................................................... 16 3.1 The need to organize an orderly path ............................................................................................... 16 3.2 Groundwater resources management and governance - and how they differ from each other....... 16 3.3 Principles of good groundwater governance .................................................................................... 17 4. OBSERVED TRENDS AND OTHER FACTORS CHALLENGING GROUNDWATER GOVERNANCE ................................................ 19 4.1 Groundwater state and observed trends in state.............................................................................. 19 4.2 Groundwater demand ...................................................................................................................... 21 4.3 Perceptions and public behaviour ..................................................................................................... 22 4.4 Other factors ..................................................................................................................................... 23 4.5 The main challenges related to the physical environment ................................................................ 24 5. ELEMENTS OF A GROUNDWATER GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK .................................................................................. 25 5.1 Groundwater resources management measures .............................................................................. 25 Control of groundwater quantity: water levels and stored volume ............................................................................ 25 Protecting groundwater quality .................................................................................................................................. 27 Pursuing highest benefit from groundwater to society .............................................................................................. 27 5.2 Creating the enabling environment for groundwater resources management ................................ 28 Area-specific information and diagnostics: making groundwater visible .................................................................... 28 Legislative and regulatory framework......................................................................................................................... 28 Institutions .................................................................................................................................................................. 29 Awareness raising, communication and stakeholder participation ............................................................................ 30 Policies, strategy development and operational activities .......................................................................................... 30 5.3 Constraints and opportunities ........................................................................................................... 31 Constraints related to knowledge, perceptions, experience and vision ..................................................................... 31 Other constraints to making a quick start and gaining support .................................................................................. 32 Constraints presented by specific properties of the groundwater resource .............................................................. 32 Constraints presented by the overall physical environment ....................................................................................... 32 Constraints related to human behaviour and conflicts of interest ............................................................................. 32 Constraints related to institutions and legal frameworks ........................................................................................... 33 Opportunities .............................................................................................................................................................. 33 6. PRESENT STATE OF GROUNDWATER GOVERNANCE AND PROSPECTS .......................................................................... 34 6.1 Preamble ........................................................................................................................................... 34 6.2 Available information ........................................................................................................................ 34 6.3 Dealing with main issues of concern ................................................................................................. 35 Control of groundwater levels .................................................................................................................................... 35 Groundwater quality control....................................................................................................................................... 37 Allocating groundwater and enhancing its beneficial use ........................................................................................... 38 6.4 Legal and institutional matters ......................................................................................................... 39 Legislation and regulatory frameworks ....................................................................................................................... 39 Organizations and stakeholders .................................................................................................................................. 39 7. 6.5 Policies, strategies and operational activities ................................................................................... 40 HOW TO IMPROVE THE STATE OF GROUNDWATER GOVERNANCE? ............................................................................ 41 7.1 Approaches to groundwater governance .......................................................................................... 41 6 Principles of good groundwater governance .............................................................................................................. 41 Holistic approach ........................................................................................................................................................ 41 Selection of management instruments and measures ................................................................................................ 42 7.2 Information, awareness-raising and communication....................................................................... 42 Information and knowledge ........................................................................................................................................ 42 Awareness raising and communication....................................................................................................................... 42 7.3 Legal and institutional matters ......................................................................................................... 43 Policy coherence across sectors .................................................................................................................................. 43 Adapting laws .............................................................................................................................................................. 43 An institutional home for groundwater ...................................................................................................................... 43 7.4 Stakeholder participation .................................................................................................................. 43 7.5 Anticipating the future: demography, climate change, new frontiers, etc. ...................................... 44 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................................... 45 List of Figures 2.1 Schematic profile of a typical alluvial groundwater system located between mountains and sea, for two different climatic settings, detailing the variation in groundwater surface water connectivity and salinization hazards 2.2 Evolution of groundwater abstraction in selected countries, period 1950-2010 2.3 Intensity of groundwater abstraction by country for the year 2010, in mm/year 2.4 Connectivity relationships between groundwater and streams 4.1 Declining groundwater levels in the Kukarwada sub-district, Mehsana region, Gujarat, India 4.2 Estimated cumulative global depletion, period 1900-2008 4.3 Salinity advancement in groundwater in the Mar del Plata urban area (Argentina), due to local intensive pumping 4.4 Sources of groundwater contamination in urban areas 4.5 Feasible depth ranges for subsurface uses other than groundwater abstraction 5.1 Management interventions to convert an overexploited aquifer into an aquifer from which groundwater is withdrawn without causing excessive adverse impacts 5.2 Types of managed aquifer recharge 6.1 Typical stages of groundwater development and the corresponding impact on the natural discharge and storage of groundwater bodies 6.2 Targets for groundwater resources management in ‘rationalization scenarios’ following indiscriminate and excessive exploitation of groundwater List of Tables 3.1 4.1 5.1 6.1 Important aspects to be considered in groundwater governance (after Varady et al., 2012) Summary of climate change impacts on recharge under different climatic condition Some methods for controlling pollution sources to be considered for groundwater quality governance Checklist of 21 key benchmarking criteria for the evaluation of groundwater governance provision and capacity 6.2 Progress in detection levels of possible groundwater contaminants List of Boxes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Thematic Papers Groundwater governanc...
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