CHAPTER 4.ppt - Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement CHAPTER 4 Overview Defining Performance Determinants of Performance Performance

CHAPTER 4.ppt - Defining Performance and Choosing a...

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Unformatted text preview: Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement CHAPTER 4 Overview Defining Performance Determinants of Performance Performance Dimensions Approaches to Measuring Performance Defining Performance Performance is: Behavior What employees do Defining Performance Performance is NOT: Results or Outcomes What employees produce Behaviors labeled as Performance are: 1. Evaluative • • • 2. Negative Neutral Positive Multidimensional • Many different kinds of behaviors • Advance or hinder organizational goals Behaviors are Not always • Observable • Measurable Results/Consequences may be used • To infer(conclusion) of the behavior • As proxy(alternative) for behavioral measure Determinants of Performance Performance = Declarative Knowledge X Procedural Knowledge X Motivation A. Declarative Knowledge Information about • Facts • Labels • Principles • Goals Understanding of task requirements B. Procedural Knowledge Knowing • What to do • How to do it and Procedural Knowledge (continued) Skills • Cognitive • Physical • Perceptual • Motor • Interpersonal C. Motivation Choices • Expenditure of effort • Level of effort • Persistence of effort (Deliberate Practice leads to excellence) Deliberate(on purpose) Practice Approach performance with goal of getting better Focus on performance • What is happening? • Why? Seek feedback from expert sources Build mental models of job, situation, organization Repeat first 4 steps on an ongoing basis Implications for Addressing Performance Problems Managers need information to accurately identify source(s) of performance problems Performance management systems must • Measure performance AND • Provide information on SOURCE(s) of problems Factors Influencing Determinants of Performance: Individual characteristics • Procedural knowledge • Declarative knowledge • Motivation HR practices Work environment Performance Dimensions: Types of multi-dimensional behaviors Task performance Contextual(background) performance • Pro-social(+) behaviors • Organizational citizenship Task performance Activities that transform raw materials help with the transformation process • Replenishing(refilling) • Distributing • Supporting Contextual performance Behaviors that contribute to organization’s effectiveness and provide a good environment in which task performance can occur Differences Between Task and Contextual Performance Task Performance • Varies across jobs • Likely to be role prescribed • Influenced by Abilities Skills Contextual Performance • Fairly similar across jobs • Not likely to be role prescribed • Influenced by Personality Why Include Task & Contextual Performance Dimensions in PM system? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Global competition Customer service Teamwork Employee perceptions of PM Supervisor views Job Performance in Context A perform er (individu al or TRAIT team) In a given situati on Engages in certain behavi ors That produce various results BEHAVIOR RESULTS Approaches to Measuring Trait Approach • Emphasizes individual traits of employees Behavior Approach • Emphasizes how employees do the job Results Approach • Emphasizes what employees produce Trait Approach Emphasis on individual • Evaluate stable traits Cognitive abilities Personality • Based on relationship between traits & performance Trait Approach (continued) Appropriate if • Structural changes planned for organization Disadvantages • Improvement not under individual’s control • Trait may not lead to Desired behaviors or Desired results Behavior Approach Appropriate if • Employees take a long time to achieve desired outcomes • Link between behaviors and results is not obvious • Outcomes occur in the distant future • Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control Not appropriate if above conditions are not present Results Approach Advantages: • Less time • Lower cost • Data appear objective Results Approach (continued) Most appropriate when: • Workers skilled in necessary behaviors • Behaviors and results obviously related • Consistent improvement in results over time • Many ways to do the job right Quick Review Defining Performance Determinants of Performance Performance Dimensions Approaches to Measuring Performance ...
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