OverviewSlide by David LarsenRenal failureRenal failure occurs when a patient experiences a significant loss of renal function. This loss in function canoccur due to an acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is usually due to a decrease inextracellular volume, decreased renal blood flow, or injury to the kidney.Patients with AKI may present with oliguria, anuria, edema, sx. of congestive heart failure, nausea, vomiting,fatigue, various elevated labs, and delayed wound healing.Patients with CKD may present with similar symptoms as those with AKI. However, CKD patients may alsoexperience hypertension, diarrhea or constipation, malnutrition and weight loss, pruritis, anemia, and skeletalchanges.(McCance & Huether, 2015)
Case PresentationSlides by David LarsenThe patient is a 41 year-old male who has a longstanding history of hypertension and diabetes andpresents with a complaint of pruritis, lethargy, lower extremity edema, nausea and emesis. He denies anyother medical illnesses.On physical exam the patient is a well-developed, well-nourished male in moderate distress. Bloodpressure 180/110, pulse 80, respirations 24 and he was afebrile. Body weight 76.5 kg. HEENT wasremarkable for fundoscopic findings of A-V nicking and copper wire changes consistent with hypertensiveinjury. Cardiac exam had an S1, S2 and S4. The remainder of the exam was remarkable for 2+ lowerextremity edema and superficial excoriations of his skin from scratching.(Patients with Renal Failure, n.d. para. 1-2)
Case Presentation Cont.(Patients with Renal Failure, n.d.)
Diagnosis and Diagnostic TestsBy Anna Sabrina Paningbatan●Renal Clearance - determines how muchof a substance can be cleared from theblood by the kidneys per given unit oftime.