Running head: CVI and DVT1Disorders of the Veins and ArteriesQueela TadoumWalden UniversityAdvanced PathophysiologyNURS-650106/23/2019
CVI and DVT2Disorders of the Veins and ArteriesVeins are flexible, thin-walled vessels with valves to prevent backflow. If the valves inside the veins become damaged, the valves may not close completely, allowing blood to flow in both directions. The increased pressure in the vein is a result of the larger circulating blood volume under the influence of gravity. The damaged valve results in increased blood flow to the extremities resulting in ischemia. (Huether And McCance 2017 p.598) Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are two conditions that result from impaired venous blood flow. In this paper, the pathophysiology of each disorder, along with theirsimilarities and differences, will be explained, along with associated risk factors treatment options to be considered.Chronic Venous InsufficiencyChronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is an inadequate venous blood flow over time. Varicose veins cause chronic venous insufficiency. Varicose veins typically occur in the saphenous veins of the legs — the varicose result from the pooling of blood in the veins. The pooling of blood produces distended, tortuous, and palpable vessels. Damage to the valve, alterations in connective tissue protein and proteolytic enzyme activity result in remodeling of the blood vessel. As a result of the remodeling, the vein swells and becomes engorged resulting in edema to the surrounding tissue. Venous distension often develops over time, particularly in
CVI and DVT3individuals that stand for long periods, or wear restrictive clothing. Alteration in vascular blood flow can progress to chronic venous insufficiency. Chronic venous insufficiency is an, inadequate venous return over a long period. Venous hypertension, circulatory stasis, and tissue hypoxia result in an inflammatory reaction in the vessels and tissue — the inflammatory reactionresults in fibrosclerotic remodeling of the skin and ulcerations. The affected extremity has poor circulation, therefore increasing the risk of cell death or necrosis, resulting in venous stasis ulcers. (Huether And McCance 2017 p.598.)Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is caused by a blood clot in a deep vein and can be life-threatening. A thrombus is a blood clot that remains attached to a vessel wall, whereas a detached thrombus is thromboembolism.
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