*check practice quizzes* Jan 15 2019 (Tuesday) → Utilitarianism + Cultural Relativism Review Cultural Relavisim Review Terms: - Cultural relativism - Cultural Difference Argument : if there is disagreement, then all everyone is right and no one is wrong - Premises do not support conclusion, difference does not mean no valid answer - Objectivism : opposite of relativism - Valid sound argument premises - Sound → valid plus true premises Utalitarianism - Moral theory about utility - Utility: happiness/pleasure - All Ult. agree on three things - #1 Hedonists: pleasure seeker (negative) - #2 Non-egoistic: not just about oneself → what makes everyone happy - #3 Radically egalitarian: everyone counts the same - Bentham - Goal: Quantitative Headonism → make morality look like math - Calculus = add up hedons - Hedons: basic units of pleasure → all pleasure is the same - Subtract Dolores (opposite of hedons) - Do whatever actions would create most hedon - Queen or worker’s pleasure counts the same - X: spend tax dollars in a way that benefits everyone - Anything that feels pleasure or pain is apart of this - Auto-Icon - “Present but not voting” - Bentham → keep promises - If someone dies, and they want you to spend a million dollar on a cat castle - According to Bentham you should use the money to make most people happy - Mill’s Utilitarianism - Criticism: love, sex, scratching an itch all do not feel the same - Must trust people to feel happy → if not we would all be insecure - Qualitative hedonist - A difference in kind to different pleasure → higher and lower - Higher pleasure: - intellect → love + education + reading
- imagination → daydreaming, artist, feeling - Moral sentiment → pride, empathy, compassion, guilt - Lower pleasure: shared with animals - X: sex, drinking, eating - Evidence: - #1 human would not want to be a lower level animal - X: human → pig - #2 competent judging: would never give up higher pleasure for any amount (greater amount) of lower pleasure - Must experience both pleasures - X: would never give up reading for unlimited itching - Would read a book through frustrations over being giving all the itches in the world - X: would never give up 20 IQ points for 20% more pleasure during sex - Qt: “Rather be a human unsatisfied than a pig satisfied” Insight : Would you rather be reincarnated as an oyster forever (feeling of being drunk in a warm bath) or Hayden, a composer who lived to the age of 77 with several ups and downs? - Oyster = Bentham - Only person in the world to please - Infinitely collecting Hayden - Hayden = Mill - Higher pleasure Insight : Pick between: Universe #1 One person who’s evil who is getting pleasure from raping children and hurting people, does not understand there is no other person in the world, no being capable of feeling pleasure or pain, thinks he’s doing bad things but he’s actually not, getting pleasure from the bad - Bentham style → don’t care where pleasure comes from - No harm - Loads of hedons - Someone to enjoy Universe #2 Nature, no animals, goes on forever, no destruction yet no people - Mill → pick higher pleasure over working ones - Ugly - Peaceful beauty - Go home drink a beer vs going home and read philosophy - Why: instant gratification
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