Psychology 101Study Guide for Exam 2 – 65 QuestionsChapter 9 – 19 Questions on Exam5 of the questions are from the following:oWhat are the 3 major issues of developmental psychology?Nature / NurtureHow does genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (nurture) influence our development?Continuity / StagesIs development a gradual, continuous process or does it proceed through a series of stages?Stability / Change Does our early personality and intellectual traits persist through life, or do we become different people as we age?oPrenatal development: Conception – BirthSperm cells surround an ovum.As one sperm penetrates the egg’s jellylike outer coating, a series of chemical events begin that cause sperm and egg to fuse into a single cell. The embryo grows and develops rapidly. At 40 days, the spine is visible, and the arms and legs are beginning to grow. Five days later, the inch-long embryo’s proportions have begun to change. By the end of the second month, when the fetal period begins, facial features, hands, and feet have formed.As the fetus enters the fourth month, it’s about 3 ounces. oTeratogensHarmful agents such as viruses and drugs. Increase the risk to problems later in life. The effects of chemical teratogens depend on the timing of exposure. oThe competent newborn: Although William James believed that infants are little blank slates, newborns actually come into the world equipped with automatic responsesideally suited for survival.ReflexesRooting for nippleGrippingToe CurlingStartleGalantFace recognitionMother’s smellPreferential lookingHabituation – a simple form of learning that occurs when an organism shows a decrease in response to some stimulus after repeated presentation of that stimulus. oPhysical Development:
Maturation– a biologically programmed growth process. Motor movementAs an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature, more complicated skills emerge. Genes as a guideGenes guide motor developmentoCognitive Development: Cognition– refers to all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Infant memoryInfantile amnesiaOur earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday.9 of the questions are from the following:oPiaget’s Theory and Current Thinking – Piaget’s core idea was that children actively construct their cognitive world and the child’s mind develops through a series of stages, and the driving force of cognitive development is our unceasing desire to make sense of our experiences. Schema – a mental model of something in the world.