pam 215 CHEATSHEET - ETHICS- SET OF MORAL PRINCIPLES...

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ETHICS - SET OF MORAL PRINCIPLES SCIENTISTS MUST FOLLOW. 1. ETHICS OF DATA COLLECTION -MUST RESEARCH AND REPORT DATA HONESTLY 2. HUMAN SUBJECTS - RIGHTS OF SUBJECTS PROTECTED 3.SOCIETY RESPONSIBILITY - MUST PROMOT GENERAL WELFARE. RULES::: 1. CANT EXPOSE SUBJECTS TO RISK/ANY TYPE OF HARM UNLESS BENEFITS EXCEED RISKS. 2. PARTICIPATION ALWAYS VOLUNTARY 3. IF DECEPTION NEEDED, MUST INFORM THEM ASAP. 4. PROTECT CONFIDENTIALITY. BENEFITS MUST BE WEIGHED AGAINST POTENTIAL COSTS. 1. AUTONOMY - SUBJECT MUST BE GIVEN ALL INFO THEY NEED TO MAKE OWN DECISION. 2.BENEFICIENCE - PROTECTS FROM HARM AND ENSURES BENEFITS. 3.JUSTICE- CANT BE SELECTED BASED ON CLASS, STATUS, RACE UNLESS JUSTIFIED. SCIENTIFIC PROCESS - PROPOSE HYPOTHESIS AND DESIGN CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT TO TEST THESE PREDICTIONS FOR ACCURACY. WITH ENOUGH EVIDENCE, BECOMES SCIENTIFIC THEORY. 1.EMPIRICISM - UNDERSTANDING THE WORLD RELIES ON WHAT WE EXPERIENCE THRU SENSES. 2. OBJECTIVITY - (UNCOMMON) WHEN OBSERVATION IS FREE FROM EMOTION, OR PERSONAL BIAS. 3.CONTROL - USED TO RULE OUT BIAS. CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION- 2 EVENTS OCCURING TOGETHER DOES NOT MEAN C-a-E. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES- SAMPLING IS PROCESS OF SELECTING A SUBSET OF CASES TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE ENTIRE SET. PARAMETER- DESCRIPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POP. PROBABILITY SAMPLING - RANDOMLY SELECTED AND EACH CASE HAS AN EQUAL CHANCE OF BEING INCLUDED. NO SELECTION BIAS. 1)SIMPLE RANDOM - EVERY COMBO OF THIS MEANS THAT THE "DEPENDENT" VARIABLE MAY IN FACT BE CAUSING THE "INDEPENDENT" VARIABLES, AND NOT VICE VERSA.CASES HAS EQUAL CHANCE OF SELECTION. REQUIRES LIST OF POP AND METHOD FOR RANDOMLY SELECTING SAMPLE. INC SIZE TO REDUCE ERROR 2.STRATIFIED RANDOM
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