Chapter_14.pptx - Chapter 14 Antineoplastic Agents Copyright \u00a9 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams Wilkins Possible Causes of Cancer

Chapter_14.pptx - Chapter 14 Antineoplastic Agents...

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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 14: Antineoplastic Agents Chapter 14: Antineoplastic Agents
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Possible Causes of Cancer Possible Causes of Cancer Genetic Predisposition Viral Infection Constant Irritation and Cell Turnover Stress Lifestyle Factors Environmental Factors
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Neoplasm Cancer — Mechanisms of Growth #1 Neoplasm Cancer — Mechanisms of Growth #1 As the abnormal cells continue to divide, they lose more and more of their original cell characteristics and they exhibit the following: Anaplasia o Cancerous cells lose cellular differentiation and organization; unable to function normally Autonomy o Cancerous cells grow without the usual homeostatic restrictions that regulate cell growth o This allows the cells to form a tumor
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Neoplasm Cancer — Mechanisms of Growth #2 Neoplasm Cancer — Mechanisms of Growth #2 Metastasis o Cancer cells travel from the place of origin to develop new tumors in other areas of the body Angiogenesis o Abnormal cells release enzymes to generate blood vessels and supply oxygen and nutrients to the cells, generating growth o Cancerous cells rob the host cells of energy and nutrients and block normal lymph
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Types of cancer Types of cancer Carcinomas- o tumors that originate in epithelial cells Sarcomas – o tumors that originate in the mesenchyme and are made up of embryonic connective tissue cells
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved FIGURE 14.1 Malignant tumors develop from one cell, with somatic mutations occurring during cell division as the tumor grows. FIGURE 14.1 Malignant tumors develop from one cell, with somatic mutations occurring during cell division as the tumor grows.
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Goal of Cancer Treatment Goal of Cancer Treatment Destroying cancer cells through several methods: o Surgery to remove them o Stimulation of the immune system to destroy them o Radiation therapy to destroy them o Drug therapy to kill them during various phases of the cell cycle
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Classifications of Tumors Classifications of Tumors Solid Tumors o May originate in any body organ o Carcinomas (originate in epithelial cells) o Sarcomas (originate in the mesenchyma) Hematological Malignancies o Leukemias and lymphomas; occur in the blood- forming organs
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Antineoplastic agents Antineoplastic agents Antineoplastic drugs o Alter human cells in a variety of ways. Their action is intended to target the abnormal cells that compose the neoplasm or cancer, having a greater impact on them than on normal cells. Unfortunately, normal cells also are affected by antineoplastic agents.
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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Use of Antineoplastic Across the Life Span Use of Antineoplastic Across the Life Span
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