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Biology Review session_

Biology Review session_ - Biology Review session Concise...

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Biology Review session Concise. Put more than 5 but maximum 10 pieces of information. Do not repeat question as statements. Do not include opinion. Comparison-contrast: similarities and differences 1. Mitosis – asexual division of chromosomes of eukaryotic cells usually followed by cytokinesis; process of cell reproduction, occurs in eukaryotic cells (No prokaryotes, dividing by binary fission instead), can happen in ALL eukaryotic cells Meiosis – chromosomal division only found in diploid eukaryotes by which the diploid germ cells divide to form haploid reproductive cells in animals for gametes, and in plant for spores. Restricted to germ cells only. Evolved much later. @similarities – 1) division of chromosomes 2) only in eukaryotes 3) usually followed by cytokinesis 4) preceded by DNA &chromosome replication 5) accomplished by spindle apparatus (in order to separate chromosomes) @differences – 1) mitosis, ALL eukaryotic cells; meiosis – ONLY diploid eukaryotic cells 2) mitosis – ALL eukaryotic cells; meiosis – ONLY gamete/spore, form of cells 3) mitosis, 1 divisions; meiosis – 2 divisions 4) mitosis – either haploid or diploid cells; meiosis – always haploid products, daughter cells 5) mitosis – double stranded chromosomes @3 things of mitosis Growth and development, reproduction in unicellular organisms, tissue repair @ Meiosis Sexual reproduction, extraordinary increased amount of genetic variation (!!) Diploid organisms make haploid gametes. (haploid organisms can make gametes without meiosis, like haploid cells) Plants – spores only made by mitosis. Do all eukaryotes do mitosis? Yes. Meiosis is rather an optional thing, not necessary for reproduction in eukaryotes. Meiosis is obligate
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ONLY in animals (necessary), NOT fungi, plants, and protists. Immediate product of meiosis in plants – spores, they don’t fuse, carried by air, divide to form multicelluar haploid gametophyte Animals – gametes, have to fuse together in order to make another organisms (part of lifecycle of diploid) What’s produced in males (four same sized sperm cells) and females (1 egg cell and 3 polar bodies) 2. DNA – deoxyribose nucleic acid, a nucleic acid with function of storage and transmitting of genetic information, translated by RNA, in all living organisms. Double helix, polymerized nucleotides in which two strands run antiparellel. Genotype – DNA stores genotype of an organism; the genetic information that “codes” for phenotype, DNA codes for genotype of an organisms. Phenotype – actual structure and function of organism Gene – a sequence of nucleotides in DNA beginning with a promoter and ending with terminator that codes for at least one molecule of RNA. Genes that code for mRNA ultimately code for amino acid sequence of polypeptide/proteins DNA genes for mRNA (proteins), tRNA, rRNA (ribosomes) Genes that code for polypeptide (especially for enzymes) = structural genes How is genetic material replicated?
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