Final Exam Review
House Seats • Constitution provides for the apportionment of House seats among the states on the basis of their respective populations • Reapportioned every 10 years
Congressional Districts – Senators expected to represent all of the people in a state, representatives elected by the voters of a particular area known as a congressional district
Supreme Court Addresses Apportionment Issues • Malapportionment – situation in which the voting power of citizens in one district is greater than the voting power of citizens in another district • “one person, one vote” rule – requires that congressional districts have equal populations so that one person’s vote counts as much as another’s vote
Gerrymandering • Occurs when a district’s boundaries are drawn to maximize the influence of a certain group or political party • After the 2010 consensus – Republican party won control of state legislatures across the country – result was large number of Republican gerrymanders which had a substantial effect on the 2012 elections • errymandering-explained/2016/04/21/e447f5c2-07f e-11e6-bfed-ef65dff5970d_video.html?utm_term=. 08f3ddc6f562
Question • Some states have tried to prevent gerrymandering by establishing independent redistricting commissions. What kinds of individuals should serve on such commissions and why?
Power of Incumbency • Incumbent – someone already in office • Incumbents typically win most often and by large amounts why? – Professional staffs – Lawmaking power – Access to the media – Name recognition
House Leadership • Speaker of the House – president officer in the House – member of the majority party and most powerful member of the House – Has substantial control over what bills are assigned to which committee – May preside over sessions – Votes in the event of a tie – Plays a major role in making important committee member assignments – Speaker schedules bills for action
Senate Leadership • President Pro Tempore – serves in absence of the V.P. • V.P. is actually the president of the Senate • Party Leaders – Majority and Minority leaders like the house
Congressional Committees • Standing Committees – permanent and most powerful committees of Congress – ex. Foreign relations, agriculture • Subcommittees – division of a larger committee that deals with a particular part of the committee’s policy area • Conference committees- temporary committee that is formed when the two chambers pass differing versions of the same bill
Filibuster in Senate • Use of unlimited debate to obstruct legislation • May be ended by invoking cloture – procedure for closing debate and bringing matter to consideration for a vote – 16 Senators must sign petition requesting cloture, and after 2 days, 3/5 of entire membership must vote for cloture • https:// • http :// mentalfloss.com/article/49360/5-famous-filibuster s
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- Fall '19
- Monroe Doctrine, President of the United States, United States Congress, United States Senate