Michelle Ramsey - Chapter 3 Socialization From Infancy to...

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Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old AgeThe Power of Society:-How conscious is our decision to spend time in front of the television?Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity-Socialization-Lifeline social experience by which individuals develop human potential and learn patterns of their culture-Personality-A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting built through internalizationHuman Development: Nature and Nurture-Elements of society have a naturalistic root.-Nature or nurture?-It is both, but from a sociological perspective, nurture matters more.-Social sciences: The role of nurture-Most of who and what we are as a species is learned, or social in nature.-Behaviorism-Human infants display various reflexes—biologically based behavior patterns that enhance survival.-Sucking reflex-Grasping reflex-Moro reflexSocial Isolation-Effect on nonhuman primates-Harlow’s experiments-Six months of complete isolation caused irreversible emotional and behavioral damage-Effect on children-Anna, Isabelle, and Genie-Isolation left children damaged-Success after intensive treatment was related to mental
functioning and age at rescue-This drawing was made by a child living through the daily violence of the civil war in Syria.-What are the likely effects of such experiences on a young person’s self-confidence and capacity to form trusting ties?Understanding Socialization: -These six researchers have made lasting contributions to our understanding of human development:-Sigmund Freud-Jean Piaget-Lawrence Kohlberg-Carol Gilligan-George Herbert Mead-Erik H. EriksonSigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality-Elements of Personality-Basic human needs: Eros and thanatos as opposing forces of basic needs-Developing personality-The id: Basic drives-The ego: Efforts to achieve balance-The superego: Culture within -Evaluate-Presents humans in male terms and devalues women-Theories difficult to test scientifically-Freud influenced everyone who later studied human personality.Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development-Studied cognition-How people think and understand-Identified four stages of development-Sensorimotor stage: experience only through senses-Preoperational stage: first use language and other symbols -

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