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INTRODUCTION – WHAT IS EVOLUTION? Evolution – ( evolvere : unroll) – Change over time in the “form” of organisms o Speciation – origin of new forms o “form” – behavior, morphology, cellular processes, gene sequences Time scale o Macroevolution – “deep time” – change over long periods of time Some have ancestors still today, others don’t Ex) cyanobacteria descendents today Ex) trilobites extinct Ex) gingko one species still alive today o “medium” time scale – thousands or millions of years ex) Darwin’s finches in the Galapagos diversity in feeding habits reflected in morphology of birds o microevolution – “short” time scale – a few, hundreds, or thousands of years change over within populations ex) bacterial resistance Three fundamental observations o Diversity of form and changes in diversity over time o Hierarchical organizations of diversity (tree of evolution) o “good fit” between the organism and the environment (adaptation of
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