lecture 07 - PHYLOGENETICS II MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS...

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PHYLOGENETICS II MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS Characteristics of DNA sequence data o Large number of characters with easily recognized character states (A, T, G, C) o Consistent “rules” for character state changes o Distinct “classes” of characters with different rates of change Nature of nucleotide substitutions o Transitions vs. transversions o Transition – between same class (pyrimidines replace pyrimidines, purines replace purines) o Transversions – between different classes, much less likely, pyrimidines replaces purine o For protein coding genes rates depend on codon position (synonymous vs. nonsynonymous substitutions) o Rates of substitution also different in different parts of genes and pseudogenes???? Examples of phylogenetic inference from molecular data o Relationships among primates – human and chimps are sister species o Plague locus and relatives, swarming behavior… Subfamily only in “old world” (Asia and Australia) All other species in “new world”
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lecture 07 - PHYLOGENETICS II MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS...

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