lecture 08 - PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION Phylogenetics and...

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PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION Phylogenetics and evolutionary history What can I learn from a tree? o The sequence of character evolution (order in which it occurred) o Geography of evolution (where it occurred) o Environmental context of character evolution o Single vs. multiple origins of a character To interpret a tree correctly, focus on “clades”… o Monophyletic – common ancestor and ALL descendents o Paraphyletic – common ancestor, but only SOME of descendents Ex) birds (should include dinosaurs) o Polyphyletic – different ancestors (no single common ancestor) Ex) sharks and killer whales (similar in appearance, but totally different ancestors; one is a fish and the other is a mammal) o Clade – monophyletic group o Cladogram – branching diagrams constructed by cladistic methods o Cladistics – two proposals – 1) proposed method for discovering real branching pattern of evolutionary history, 2) articulating an opinion on the criteria for classification Geography of diversification
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lecture 08 - PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION Phylogenetics and...

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