Week 6 - Cervical Cancer Grand Rounds Discussion Summary.docx

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Week 6 – Grand Rounds Summary Post – Cervical Cancer The week 6 Grand Rounds presentations provided me the opportunity to review and gain additional knowledge in regards to the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, physical assessment findings, treatment, and education of various women’s health conditions. In summary of my week 6 presentation, cervical cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the United States (Hollier, 2018). Every year there is an estimated 13,000 new cases of cervical cancer diagnosed, and it is responsible for more than 4,000 deaths annually (Hollier, 2018). The highest incidence of cervical cancer is among women 40-49 years old, and Hispanic and black women are most often affected (Hollier, 2018). The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the precursor for the development of cervical cancer and is detectable in 99.7% of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases (Wipperman, Neil, & Williams, 2018). There are 15 known high-risk strains of HPV with types 16 and 18 causing about 70% of all cervical cancers (Rerucha, Caro, & Wheeler, 2018). The main risk factors associated with cervical cancer include the following: increased exposure to HPV infections, such as becoming sexually active at an early age or having multiple sexual partners, previously or currently infected with HPV, decreased ability to rid the body of the virus due to an immunocompromised state, cigarette smoking, family history of a first degree relative having cervical cancer, and oral contraceptives use for more than 5 years (Wipperman et al., 2018; Hollier, 2018). In the early stages of cervical cancer, the cervix may appear normal, but other physical assessment findings may include cervical erosion, ulceration, or a bleeding mass; decreased mobility or hardening of the cervix, or the cervix may be irregular or have cauliflower- like growth (Hollier, 2018). Achieving early detection of precancerous lesions with primary screening tools such as Pap testing or cervical cytology is the ultimate goal, which will stop the precancerous lesions from turning into cervical cancer and to reduce mortality ((Rerucha et al., 2018). Primary screening

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