Environmental ethics This is the study of ethical questions raised by human relationship with the nonhuman environment..these are those questions about what we ought to do and ethical claims are prescriptive rather than descriptive or predictive. An example of a prescriptive claim is as follows:people should reduce the ecological impacts of their lifestyles. This claim could be true ,even if lifestyles are currently unsustainable and future change is unlikely. Thus prescriptive claims are irreducible to either descriptive claims about peoples acts and beliefs or predictive claims about possible future events. history of environmental ethics Ethical reflection on human relations with the non-humann world is not new. Concern about the environmental impacts of human practises and human treatment of animals was found in ancient greece. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Muir (1838-1914) are still influential people in environmental ethics. The modern phase of environmental ethics emerged in the 1970s. The first academic conference concerning environmental ethics was held at the University of Georgia in 1971; the first journal, Environmental Ethics, was founded in 1978. From the 1980s onward, research, publication, and teaching in environmental ethics rapidly expanded. Monographs and edited collections central to the field, including Taylor’s Respect for Nature, Rolston’s Philosophy Gone Wild, and Elliot & Gare’s Environmental Philosophy, were published in the mid-1980s. By the 1990s, textbooks and readers for students were being published, most prominently Des Jardins’s Environmental Ethics and VanDeVeer & Pierce’s The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book. The International Society for Environmental Ethics was founded in 1989, and the International Association for Environmental Philosophy in 1997. New environmental ethics journals were also founded during the 1990s: Environmental Values (1992), Ethics and the Environment (1996), the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics (1997) and Ethics, Place and Environment (1998) (now Ethics, Policy and Environment). . HUMAN VALUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS
The Idea of Anthropocentrism The term anthropocentrism can be used to refer to worldviews and attitudes, to intrinsic value, or to moral status and significance. The argument that anthropocentric attitudes, such as that humans have dominion over nature, lie at the root of our environmental problems has historically been influential in environmental ethics. In a key early paper, Lynn White Jr. maintained that the claim that humans were both separate from and superior to nature was a fundamental cause of the environmental crisis. This idea also animated deep ecology, a radical environmental movement at its height in the late 1970s and 1980s, but still influential today.