lecture 12 - The Genetic Basis of Traits and Patterns of...

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The Genetic Basis of Traits and Patterns of Variation Types of phenotypic variation o Discrete polymorphism – traits affected by a single (or few) major genes but also can be the result of threshold responses in development o Continuous variation Polygenic traits – when a trait is influenced by many genes (each perhaps of a small effect) – “polygenic” traits Due to influence of environment o Ex) Ptarmigan vs. Snow goose Ptarmigan color changes depending on season of the year – due to environment Goose color is genetically determined o Ex) Height in humans various continuously because it is polygenic o Ex) Changes of fingerprint ridges varies continuously Population genetics – explains evolutionary change in terms of changes in the frequencies of alleles and genotypes (at one or a few loci) o Predict allele or genotype frequencies in generation (t+1) from those in generation t o Must be able to enumerate genotypes by looking at phenotypes (so it is
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