Unit 5 Chapter 13.docx - Chapter 13 Antebelleum Revival and...

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Chapter 13: Antebelleum Revival and Reform: Introduction: Period between 1820-1860 was a time of great change in society, religion, and culture in US Second Great Awakening, religious revival movement, saw evangelical Christianity supplant the established religious patterns of colonial and Revolutionary eras: the Methodist and Baptist churches grew and spread Others turned to “rational” religious denominations like Unitarianism They based their religious beliefs on practices of rationalism, downplaying miracles of scripture and concentrating on morals it imparted and historical events arguing “my rational nature is from God” Mid 19th century witnessed appearance of number of millennial sects such as Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites advocating that the Second Coming of Jesus was at hand Socially, society was in a period of upheaval bc of changes spurred by market revolution Increasing urbanization and industrialization, growth of immigration, and growing inequality between classes Reform impulse and subsequent movements, such as abolitionism and movement to reform prisons and asylums, were strongest in N US, area most affected by market revolution as reformers sought to impose order on changing society Socially and culturally, period was time of experimentation More than 100 Utopian communities sprang up all over country Some of these, such as Shakers, were religious communitites Others like Brook Far, considered themselves as social experiments Antebellum period was time of social and moral reform Moral reform groups promoted temperance, or abstinence from alcohol Others worked to make basic edu available to all or sought to improve conditions in prison or asylums Social activists sought to end slavery and establish greater rights for women American intellectualism and literature flowered, in part under transcendentalism movement Each of these, religious, moral, and reform stressed a belief in basic goodness of human nature and each of the movements sought to perfect humanking and society Religious Reforms in the Antebellum United States: Years after War of 1812 brought reexamination of American religious beliefs and their roles in society Calvinism taught only an elect few Christians would be saved - lost appeal Americans turned to evangelicalism Evangelical sects emphasized resurrection of Christ, primacy of scripture, spiritual “rebirth” of believers, and importance of proselytizing Movement began in Europe in 1700s with growth of Baptist movement and foundation of
Methodist church By 1790s these two were gaining pop in US Evangelism found greatest influence and greatest number of converts in movement of religious revivals in US: Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening: It began in 1790s and by 1820s had emerged as major religious movement Evangelical in nature, it stressed salvation was available through free will Religious reformers preached that individuals were responsible to seek out salvation and hoped to regenerate perfect society through individual conversions

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