The Cold War Begins: 1945 – 1952 Section 1: Global Insecurities at War’s End I. Financing the Future a. The defensive spending of the government effectively ended the Great Depression and the nation enjoyed a post-war economic boom. i. The US is now by far the richest country in the world. ii. Middle class grows 50% b. Fear that the Great Depression would return now that the war was over and production would transfer back to that of consumer goods. US integrates Western Europe, Latin America and Asia into an international economy. c. The Brenton Woods conference established the World Bank and the IMF (Stalin did not ratify the agreements, isolating the USSR from the rest of the world). II. The Division of Europe a. Following WWII, Germany was divided into four zones controlled by France, Britain, the US, and the Soviet Union. b. The US and Britain merged their zones, and invited France and the Soviet Union to join. France agreed and the Soviet Union, fearing a reunified Germany, refused. c. This pitted the US against the Soviet Union, and Americans now saw a reunified Germany as a means to check the expansion of the Soviet Union. III. The United Nations and Hopes for Collective Security a. The UN found most of its success in humanitarian efforts. b. Lacked the ability to mediate international disputes. c. Increasingly operated strictly on Cold War lines. Section 2: The Policy of Containment I. The Truman Doctrine a. In Feb. 1946, George Kannan issues the “long telegram” in which he develops the policy of containment, calling for the US to stop Soviet expansion. b. When there was a fear that Greece, Turkey, and perhaps the entire oil-rich Middle East would fall to the Soviet Union, Truman made his case to congress, establishing the Truman Doctrine which stated that the US would provide economic and military aid to support Greece and Turkey against the Soviets. i. Shaped American foreign policy into a force against communism. c. Greece and Turkey both received $400 million dollars from the US and they would not fall to communism. II. The Marshall Plan
a. Because of the economic hardships in Europe, there was a fear that communists may be voted into power in Western Europe.