Chapter 16 - Reconstruction Section Notes Rebuilding the South The Fight over Reconstruction Reconstruction in the South Video Impact of Reconstruction i n the South Images Testing New Freedoms Primary Source: Supporting Radical Republican Ideas Quick Facts The Reconstruction Amendments Hopes Raised and Denied Chapter 16 Visual Summary Maps Reconstruction Military Districts African American Representation in the South, 1870
8.10.7 8.11.1 8.11.3 8.11.5 Rebuilding the South The Big Idea The nation faced many problems in rebuilding the Union. Main Ideas • President Lincoln and Congress differed in their views as Reconstruction began. • The end of the Civil War meant freedom for African Americans in the South. • President Johnson’s plan began the process of Reconstruction.
Main Idea 1: President Lincoln and Congress differed in their views as Reconstruction began. • Reconstruction: the process of readmitting the former Confederate states to the Union; lasted from 1865 to 1877 • The South had been severely damaged by war—cities, towns, and farms had been ruined. • Many southerners faced starvation. • Banks failed, and merchants went bankrupt.
Lincoln’s Plan • The Ten Percent Plan offered amnesty, or official pardon, to southerners. • Southerners had to swear allegiance to the Union and agree that slavery was illegal. • New state governments could be formed once 10 percent of voters had made these pledges. • Lincoln wanted to restore order quickly. Reconstruction Plans Wade-Davis Bill • Congressional Republicans’ alternative to Lincoln’s plan • To be readmitted, a state had to ban slavery, and a majority of adult males had to take a loyalty oath. • Only southerners who swore they had never supported the Confederacy could vote or hold office. • Lincoln refused to sign the bill into law.
• One thing Republicans agreed on was abolishing slavery. • Lincoln urged Congress to propose the Thirteenth Amendment . • Made slavery illegal in the United States • The amendment was ratified, and took effect on December 16, 1865. Main Idea 2: The end of the Civil War meant freedom for African Americans in the South.
Freedom Brought Changes • Newly freed slaves faced many changes. – Married couples could legalize their marriages. – Families searched for members who had been sold away. – Many moved from mostly white counties to places with more African Americans. • Freed people demanded same economic and political rights as white citizens. – Many former slaves wanted their own land to farm. – Many white planters refused to surrender their land. – The U.S. government returned land to its original owners.
• Established by Congress in 1865 • Provided relief not only for freed people and certain poor people, but white refugees as well • Distributed food and provided education and legal help • Established 3,000 schools and several universities Freedmen’s Bureau
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