Bio Extra Credit - Schaffer 1 Chapter 1 In chapter one biology was defined as the science of studying and understanding the living organisms of the

Bio Extra Credit - Schaffer 1 Chapter 1 In chapter one...

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Schaffer 1Chapter 1:In chapter one, biology was defined as the science of studying and understanding the living organisms of the world and their interactions with other organisms and their environment. Scientists use the scientific method to observe, create hypotheses, and then make tests through controlled experiments. The results of those experiments are then subject to peer review and must be reproducible. Chapter one also covers theories which are broad explanations that encompass all of the knowledge in a field of study. All living things are organized into groups starting with the smallest and working up to the biggest unit. The hierarchy includes atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Organisms are grouped into populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. All life today evolved from a single cell at one point in time billions of years ago. A phylogenetic tree can be used to show evolutionary relationships among evolved organisms. There are three main theories of biology. The first is cell theory that states that all living things are made of cells, that cells are thebasic unit of life, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells. Second is the theory of evolution by natural selection that states that populations of living organisms change over time due to selective pressures that cause certain individuals to pass their traits on at a higher rate. Finally the chromosomal theory of inheritance states that traits are passed from parent to offspring as genes on chromosomes made of DNA.Chapter one relates to evolution because evolution is biology. It talks about how all life today evolved from a single cell at one point in time billions of years ago which is what evolution is. Evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection. Chapter one also talks about the theory of evolutionby natural selection which states that populations of living organisms change over time due to
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Schaffer 2selective pressures that cause certain individuals to pass their traits on at a higher rate. This directly relates to evolution and defines it for the rest of the chapters.Chapter 2:Chapter two introduces matter and the elements that make up the world. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass and it is made up of 92 different elements. All the elements have unique qualities that allow them to combine in various ways to create molecules, which in turn combine to form cells, tissues, organ systems, and organisms. Atoms are the smallest units of an element that retain all of the properties of that element including a nucleus, with positively charged protons and neutral neutrons, as well as orbitals containing negatively charged electrons. The number of protons determines to which element that atom belongs and neutrons determine isotope. The number of electrons is almost always equal to the number of protons, which makes atoms electrically neutral. Water was also introduced in this chapter. It is
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