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Chpt.35 Plant Form - Chapter 35 Plant Form The theme of...

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Chapter 35 – Plant Form The theme of this chapter is to provide a basic background about plant morphology – focusing, of course, on Angiosperms. Keep in mind that these structures are adaptations to “life on land.” The Concept Outline and Concept Review Outline both provide excellent structure for discussing structure! Plants have three basic organ systems – roots, stems, and leaves (Fig. 35.6). In some cases, there is only primary growth. In other cases, the plant may live for more than one year and there is secondary growth. The issue becomes not only the structure of these organs, but also how the tissues reproduce to form the organs. Meristems: The plant body that results after germination (Fig. 35.4) depends on the activities of meristematic tissues (Section 35.1). Meristematic tissue, or meristem , is embryonic tissue that divides by mitosis and is responsible for primary and secondary growth. Most plants exhibit indeterminate growth , that is, they grow continuously until they die. In contrast, animals, flowers, leaves cease growing after a certain period or time and exhibit determinate growth . Meristem allows plants to grow taller, roots to grow deeper and develop branches, and for those plants with secondary growth (growth beyond one year) – it provides for increased girth, or diameter in the plant stem. Therefore, there is “ shoot apical meristem ,” “ root apical meristem ,” and “ lateral/vascular meristem .” The stages in the differentiation of plant tissues from root and shoot meristems is outlined very nicely in Fig. 35.20. Shoot apical meristem produces three kinds of primary meristem : protoderm which forms the epidermis; ground meristem which differentiates further into ground tissue or parenchyma ; and, procambium which gives rise to the primary vascular tissue , xylem and phloem (Fig. 35.3). Plants that live longer than one year are involved in
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