Chapter 42: The Animal Body and How It Moves
The theme of this chapter focuses on the basic organization of a vertebrate animal body and how
We will focus on the human body – specifically basic organization, connective tissue
and specifically the Skeletal System, and the Muscular System.
This chapter contains some
information about the Nervous System, but we will not cover the Nervous System now.
will also be covered when we talk about the Circulatory System.
The Concept Outline (P. 855)
and the Concept Review (P.885) both provide excellent coverage of the subject.
1. Vertebrate bodies are a “tube within a tube.”
There is a cephalic region at the anterior end,
food is eaten, oxygen is taken in, food is digested, energy is produced, carbon dioxide is given
off, and undigested food (feces) comes out the posterior end.
Other organs are attached to the
inner tube and contribute to production of enzymes, absorption, or excretion.
It all really quite
2. The four levels of organization are:
cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
3. The four basic tissue types are: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous.
4. Epithelial cells cover things (membranes) or form glands.
Some membranes are one cell
thick, other membranes may be several cells thick.
Invagination of epithelial tissue results in
glandular formation – either exocrine or endocrine.
Epithelial cells typically have one side
connected to connective tissue and the other side open to the environment.
cells are often the first contact with the environment (outside or inside).
Skin is an excellent
The lining of the inner tube, the digestive tract is another example.
5. Connective tissue is highly variable.
It consists of things like blood, cartilage, adipose tissue,
and cells of the immune system!
We will not cover all types of connective tissue here.
6. Connective tissue can be divided into “connective tissue proper” which is then subdivided into
loose and dense connective tissue.
Adipose tissue, the storage of excess food, is an example of
the former, and tendons or ligaments would be an example of the latter. Table 42.3
7. The other category is “specialized connective tissue.”
Bone, cartilage, and blood are examples
of this category.
8. The skeleton is alive when functional.
We have an internal skeleton which consists of the salt,
Other skeletal systems that are endoskeletons may consist of
Other skeletal types are exoskeletons and hydrostatic skeletons.
types may consist of chitin and calcium carbonate.
Our skeleton, or bone, is the
of all the connective tissues.
9. Functions of the Skeletal System: 1) Support against gravity; 2) Protects organs, nerves, brain,