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Study Guide for Midterm Exam Spring 13Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception1.Ear structure responsible for displacing fluid in the cochleaOval Window (think of head of the snail)2.Illusion where one line appears longer than the otherVisual Illusion -Ponzo & Muller-Lyer Illusion: This states that two horizontal lines are equal in length, but one appears longer than the other. The convergence of 2 lines outside horizontal lines normally indicates increasing distance. 3.When light waves come into focus in front of the retinanearsightedness - light rays are focused in front of retina4.Receptor cells for the visual systemRods (black and white) and cones (color) BOTH located in the retina.5.The trichromatic theory of color visionassumes there are 3 times of cones → activated by short, medium or long wavelengths of light → corresponding to blue, green, or red wavelengths - if equally active, we see white- creation of TV screen6.Sound theories that explain how we perceive low and high pitched soundsPlace Theory - assumes there is a specific place along basilar membrane which will respond maximally to a particular frequency → indicating the pitch to brain → as this location goes down basilar membrane from oval window, pitch goes from 20,000hz to 20hzFrequency Theory -theory of pitch perception that assumes the frequency of sound wave is mimicked by the firing rate of entire basilar membraneVolley Principle - cells taking turns firing will increase the maximum firing rate for group of cells7.Units that measure sound waveshertz → one hz = one cycle per second8.Location of fluid movements in the earcochlea (specifically the inner ear region) 9.Eye structure important under low levels of illuminationretina- this structure contains the rods, which are responsible for dim light and achromatic vision (which is what makes the retina important under low levels of illumination) 10.Location of the smallest bones in the human bodymiddle ear → smallest bones are hammer, stirrup & anvil

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