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Unformatted text preview: NUTRITION and the STRENGTH ATHLETE NUTRITION in EXERCISE and SPORT Edited by Ira Wolinsky and James F. Hickson, Jr. Published Titles Exercise and Disease, Ronald R. Watson and Marianne Eisinger Nutrients as Ergogenic Aids for Sports and Exercise, Luke Bucci Nutrition in Exercise and Sport, Second Edition, Ira Wolinsky and James F. Hickson, Jr. Nutrition Applied to Injury Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Luke Bucci Nutrition for the Recreational Athlete, Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson NUTRITION in EXERCISE and SPORT Edited by Ira Wolinsky Published Titles Sports Nutrition: Minerals and Electrolytes, Constance V. Kies and Judy A. Driskell Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life: Studies in Preschool Children, Jana Parízková Exercise and Immune Function, Laurie Hoffman-Goetz Body Fluid Balance: Exercise and Sport, E.R. Buskirk and S. Puhl Nutrition and the Female Athlete, Jaime S. Ruud Sports Nutrition: Vitamins and Trace Elements, Ira Wolinsky and Judy A. Driskell Amino Acids and Proteins for the Athlete—The Anabolic Edge, Mauro G. DiPasquale Nutrition in Exercise and Sport, Third Edition, Ira Wolinsky v Published Titles Continued Gender Differences in Metabolism: Practical and Nutritional Implications, Mark Tarnopolsky Macroelements, Water, and Electrolytes in Sports Nutrition, Judy A. Driskell and Ira Wolinsky Sports Nutrition, Judy A. Driskell Energy-Yielding Macronutrients and Energy Metabolism in Sports Nutrition, Judy A. Driskell and Ira Wolinsky Nutrition and Exercise Immunology, David C. Nieman and Bente Klarlund Pedersen Sports Drinks: Basic Science and Practical Aspects, Ronald Maughan and Robert Murry Nutritional Applications in Exercise and Sport, Ira Wolinsky and Judy Driskell Nutrition and the Strength Athlete, Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson NUTRITION and the STRENGTH ATHLETE edited by Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nutrition and the strength athlete / edited by Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson p. cm. — (Nutrition in exercise and sports series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-8198-3 (alk. paper) 1. Athletes—Nutrition. 2. Physical fitness—Nutritional aspects. 3. Weight training. I. Jackson, Catherine G. Ratzin. II. Nutrition in exercise and sport. TX361.A8 N83 2000 613.2'024'796—dc21 00-057962 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. All rights reserved. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the personal or internal use of specific clients, may be granted by CRC Press LLC, provided that $.50 per page photocopied is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISBN 0-8493-8198-3/01/$0.00+$.50. The fee is subject to change without notice. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 2001 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-8198-3 Library of Congress Card Number 00-057962 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper Series Preface The CRC series, Nutrition in Exercise and Sport, provides a setting for indepth exploration of the many and varied aspects of nutrition and exercise, including sports. The topic of exercise and sports nutrition has been a focus of research among scientists since the 1960s, and the healthful benefits of good nutrition and exercise have been appreciated. As our knowledge expands, it will be necessary to remember that there must be a range of diets and exercise regimes that will support excellent physical condition and performance. There is not a single diet-exercise treatment that can be the common denominator, or the single formula for health, or panacea for performance. This series is dedicated to providing a stage upon which to explore these issues. Each volume provides a detailed and scholarly examination of some aspect of the topic. Contributors from any bona fide area of nutrition and physical activity, including sports and the controversial, are welcome. We welcome the contribution Nutrition and the Strength Athlete by Catherine Ratzin Jackson. This is the second book contributed by her to the series, the first being Nutrition for the Recreational Athlete. Separately or together they constitute an extremely useful reference source in the area of sports nutrition. Ira Wolinsky, Ph.D. Series Editor University of Houston Dedication To my children, Blair Thomas, Brent Mathew, Bryce Robert, and Marissa Cathryn, who adopted strength training as part of their lifestyle at very young ages. They are my role models for health, fitness, and wellness. Preface This volume is part of a miniseries of special topics in the CRC series on Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. The series has become a highly regarded source of accurate, up-to-date information in the field of sport and exercise nutrition. The subject matter of this particular volume covers a topic fraught with controversy and misconception. It is intended that only scientifically based information be presented on the topic and that myths surrounding resistance training be dispelled. By way of introduction to the volume it is necessary to define several terms and set the stage for the importance of the topic area. Progressive resistance training is also referred to as strength training; the intent of this mode of exercise is to improve the strength of muscle with the use of submaximal and repetitive stimuli. Strength training is frequently used to reduce the risk of injury, maximize bone density and bone health, rehabilitate injury, and in general improve the quality of life. Weight training is also a mode of progressive resistance training. However, the desired result is an increase in muscle mass or bulk; the intent of this mode of exercise is to increase muscle size and power through the use of a minimal number of repetitions with high resistance. The distinctions between the two are not necessarily finite, as most athletes use a combination of both. The importance of strength and weight training cannot be emphasized enough. It is recognized by the American College of Sports Medicine that this mode of exercise is necessary to maintain a high quality of life. It is also recognized that strength training is of benefit to the young (Appendix A), healthy adults (Appendix B), older adults (Appendix C), and adults with or at risk for osteoporosis (Appendix D). This book begins with an extensive review of the parameters within which resistance training is defined. Subsequent chapters cover areas of known interest to those who participate in resistance training. The book concludes with a practical chapter of applications to a particular sport. Each chapter has been written by experienced and highly regarded researchers and practitioners in the area of this mode of exercise. All of the authors participate in some form of strength training as part of their lifestyle. It is the intent to have made this volume informative, interesting, and practical. Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson, Ph.D. July 2000 The Editor Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson, Ph.D., F.A.C.S.M., is professor and chair of Kinesiology at California State University, Fresno. She received her B.A. degree in chemistry and physics and her M.A. in chemistry from Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey. Her Ph.D. in exercise physiology was from the University of Colorado, Boulder. As part of her Ph.D. training she attended the University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver. Dr. Jackson has served in research and teaching positions in higher education for the last 18 years. She has also conducted basic research into long-term spaceflight by means of faculty fellowships at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, through the NASA/ASEE program at Stanford University, Stanford, California, and was a NASA/JOVE fellow. Dr. Jackson is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), twice a former President of the Rocky Mountain Chapter of ACSM, and has served the College on national committees. Other avocations have included the presidency of the Western States Association of Faculty Governance and 18 years as a competitor in the sport of fencing. She was twice the State of Colorado Womens’ Champion. She was also trained in management at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Dr. Jackson is a frequent contributor to the CRC Series on Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. Her first book, published by CRC Press, was Nutrition for the Recreational Athlete. Contributors Michael G. Coles, Ph.D. Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fresno, California Keith C. DeRuisseau, M.S. Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida Emily M. Haymes, Ph.D., F.A.C.S.M. Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson, Ph.D., F.A.C.S.M. Chair, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fresno, California William J. Kraemer, Ph.D., F.A.C.S.M. Director, The Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana Jacobo O. Morales, Ph.D. Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fresno, California Nicholas A. Ratamess The Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana Tracey A. Richers, M.A. Denver Public Health, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado Tausha Robertson, M.S. Center for Healthy Student Behaviors, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Martyn R. Rubin The Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana Shawn R. Simonson, Ed.D., C.S.C.S. Department of Wellness and Movement Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, New Mexico Ann C. Snyder, Ph.D., F.A.C.S.M. Director, Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Human Kinetics, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Jeff S. Volek, Ph.D., R.D. The Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana M. Brian Wallace, Ph.D. Senior Vice President, Director, Human Performance Laboratory, Evolution Sport Science, Boston, Massachusetts Contents 1. Basic Principles of Resistance Training ........................................ 1 William J. Kraemer, Nicholas A. Ratamess, and Martyn R. Rubin 2. General Nutritional Considerations for Strength Athletes ........................................................................... 31 Jeff S. Volek 3. Energy-Yielding Nutrients for the Resistive-Trained Athlete ............................................................................................ 53 Jacobo O. Morales 4. Vitamin and Mineral Considerations for Strength Training........................................................................... 73 Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson 5. Trace Minerals................................................................................ 97 Emily M. Haymes and Keith C. DeRuisseau 6. Dietary Supplements and Strength-Trained Athletes ............. 119 Tausha Robertson 7. Overview of Anabolic/Androgenic Hormones and Strength ................................................................................. 133 M. Brian Wallace 8. Creatine Supplementation and the Strength Athlete .............. 157 Jeff S. Volek 9. Supporting the Immune System: Nutritional Considerations for the Strength Athlete ................................... 175 Shawn R. Simonson 10. Hydration and the Strength Athlete .......................................... 197 Michael G. Coles 11. Nutritional Concerns of Women Who Resistance Train .......... 215 Ann C. Snyder 12. Nutritional Concerns of Strength Athletes with an Emphasis on Tennis................................................................ 235 Tracey A. Richers Appendix A .......................................................................................... 255 Current Comment from ACSM: Youth Strength Training Appendix B........................................................................................... 259 ACSM Position Stand: Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness and Flexibility Appendix C .......................................................................................... 265 ACSM Position Stand: Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults Appendix D .......................................................................................... 271 ACSM Position Stand: Osteoporosis and Exercise Appendix E ........................................................................................... 273 ACSM Position Stand: Proper and Improper Weight Loss Programs Appendix F ........................................................................................... 275 Selected Web Sites Appendix G .......................................................................................... 277 List of Nutrients Appendix H .......................................................................................... 279 Current Comment from ACSM: Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Exercise Appendix I............................................................................................ 285 ACSM Position Stand: The Use of Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids in Sports Appendix J............................................................................................ 287 Current Comment from ACSM: Anabolic Steroids Appendix K .......................................................................................... 291 ACSM Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement Index ..................................................................................................... 295 1 Basic Principles of Resistance Training William J. Kraemer, Nicholas A. Ratamess, and Martyn R. Rubin CONTENTS 1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................1 1.2 Basic Principles of Resistance Training .......................................................2 1.2.1 Progressive Overload ........................................................................3 1.2.2 Specificity ............................................................................................4 1.2.3 Variation ..............................................................................................4 1.3 Acute Program Variables ..............................................................................7 1.3.1 Muscle Action ...................................................................................10 1.3.2 Load ................................................................................................... 11 1.3.3 Volume...............................................................................................12 1.3.4 Exercise Selection .............................................................................14 1.3.5 Exercise Order ..................................................................................15 1.3.6 Rest Periods ......................................................................................16 1.3.7 Frequency ..........................................................................................17 1.3.8 Repetition Speed ..............................................................................19 1.4 Summary .......................................................................................................21 References ............................................................................................... 21 1.1 Introduction Improving health and performance during resistance training is a multidimensional concept. For example, optimizing the training stimulus is one factor conducive to improving performance. However, training cannot be optimal if either recovery between workouts or nutritional intake is not adequate. Recovery periods enable the body to adapt to the training sessions and prepare for subsequent workouts. Nutritional intake (i.e., macro and micronutrients, caloric intake) plays a complementary role to training for growth, 0-8493-8198-3/01/$0.00+$.50 © 2001 by CRC Press LLC 1 2 Nutrition and the Strength Athlete repair, and energy supply and is discussed elsewhere in this book. Thus, acute muscular performance and subsequent training adaptations may be limited if both factors are not properly addressed. This concept becomes increasingly important during long-term resistance training because the rate of progress decreases considerably compared to initial improvements. Therefore, optimizing nutritional intake, recovery, and training are mandatory requirements of any strength and conditioning program if the desired level of physical development and performance is to be reached. The primary focus of this chapter will be to give the reader a basic understanding of how to develop and optimize a resistance training program. An optimal resistance training exercise prescription will more effectively meet the training goals of the individual and result in more effective exercise stimuli and better training adaptations. The design of resistance training programs is based on the correct manipulation of program variables, some of which include exercise selection, order, load, and volume, in accordance with the needs and goals of the individual. The outcome is the improvement in one or more training goals, such as muscular strength, power, endurance, or hypertrophy. In general, the human body adapts favorably to stresses placed upon it. However, the period of adaptation to a specific program is short, so continual variation and progressive overload are necessary for increases in muscular fitness. An understanding of the interaction of the acute program variables involved in resistance training program design is very important for optimal progression beyond the initial phase of adaptation. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to discuss each program variable and provide recommendations based on current resistance training literature. In addition, the importance of training variation, termed periodization, is discussed in relation to manipulating the variables for long-term improvements in physical conditioning. 1.2 Basic Principles of Resistance Training Resistance training is a general term that encompasses several modalities of exercise. For example, any type of activity performed against an external resistance (i.e., plyometrics, environmental factors, sport-specific devices, manual labor, certain sporting events) may increase muscular strength, power, local muscular endurance, and/or hypertrophy. Of these different modalities, weight training (i.e., barbells, dumbbells, weight mach...
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