NSCA's guide to sport and exercise nutrition.pdf - NSCA\u2019s Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition National Strength and Conditioning Association Bill I

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Unformatted text preview: NSCA’s Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition National Strength and Conditioning Association Bill I. Campbell, PhD, CSCS, FISSN University of South Florida, Tampa Marie A. Spano, MS, RD, LD, CSCS, CSSD, FISSN Spano Sports Nutrition Consulting Editors Human Kinetics Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.) NSCA’s guide to sport and exercise nutrition / National Strength and Conditioning Association ; Bill I. Campbell, Marie A. Spano, editors. p. ; cm. -- (Science of strength and conditioning series) Guide to sport and exercise nutrition Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-7360-8349-2 (print) ISBN-10: 0-7360-8349-9 (print) 1. Athletes--Nutrition. 2. Sports--Nutritional aspects. I. Campbell, Bill I., 1975- II. Spano, Marie A., 1972- III. Title. IV. Title: Guide to sport and exercise nutrition. V. Series: Science of strength and conditioning series. [DNLM: 1. Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. 2. Dietary Supplements. 3. Exercise. 4. Nutrition Assessment. 5. Sports. QU 145] TX361.A8N38 2011 613.2’024796--dc22 2010037212 ISBN-10: 0-7360-8349-9 (print) ISBN-13: 978-0-7360-8349-2 (print) Copyright © 2011 by the National Strength and Conditioning Association All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. Notice: Permission to reproduce the following material is granted to persons and agencies who have purchased NSCA’s Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition: pp. 219-222, 240. The reproduction of other parts of this book is expressly forbidden by the above copyright notice. Persons or agencies who have not purchased NSCA’s Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition may not reproduce any material. The Web addresses cited in this text were current as of August, 2010, unless otherwise noted. Developmental Editor: Katherine Maurer; Assistant Editor: Steven Calderwood; Copyeditor: Joyce Sexton; Indexer: Michael Ferreira; Permission Manager: Dalene Reeder; Graphic Designer: Nancy Rasmus; Graphic Artist: Dawn Sills; Cover Designer: Keith Blomberg; Photographer (interior): © Human Kinetics; Photo Production Manager: Jason Allen; Art Manager: Kelly Hendren; Associate Art Manager: Alan L. Wilborn; Art Style Development: Jennifer Gibas; Illustrator: © Human Kinetics; Printer: Sheridan Books Printed in the United States of America   10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1 The paper in this book is certified under a sustainable forestry program. Human Kinetics Web site: United States: Human Kinetics Australia: Human Kinetics P.O. Box 5076 57A Price Avenue Champaign, IL 61825-5076 Lower Mitcham, South Australia 5062 800-747-4457 08 8372 0999 e-mail: [email protected] e-mail: [email protected] Canada: Human Kinetics New Zealand: Human Kinetics 475 Devonshire Road Unit 100 P.O. Box 80 Windsor, ON N8Y 2L5 Torrens Park, South Australia 5062 800-465-7301 (in Canada only) 0800 222 062 e-mail: [email protected] e-mail: [email protected] Europe: Human Kinetics 107 Bradford Road Stanningley Leeds LS28 6AT, United Kingdom +44 (0) 113 255 5665 e-mail: [email protected] E4829 Science of Strength and Conditioning Series NSCA’s Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition NSCA’s Guide to Tests and Assessments NSCA’s Guide to Program Design NSCA’s Guide to Special Populations National Strength and Conditioning Association Human Kinetics Contents Introduction  vii 1 Foods and Fluids for Training and Sport Performance 1 Bill I. Campbell, PhD, and Marie A. Spano, MS, RD New Developments in Nutrition Research  2  •  Topics in Nutrition and Performance  3  •  Professional Applications  9  •  Summary Points  10 2 Carbohydrate 11 Donovan L. Fogt, PhD Types of Carbohydrate  12    Carbohydrate Regulation in the Body  18  •  Carbohydrate and Performance  25  •  Professional Applications  30  •  Summary Points  31 3 Protein 33 Richard B. Kreider, PhD Protein in the Body  33  •  Types of Protein  36  •  Protein and Performance  43  •  Professional Applications  46  •  Summary Points  47 4 Fat 49 Lonnie Lowery, PhD, RD Fat Digestion and Absorption  49  •  Types of Fat  51  •  Dietary Fat and Performance  60  •  Professional Applications  67  •  Summary Points  69 5 Fluids 71 Bob Seebohar, MS, RD Fluid Balance During Exercise  73  •  Measuring Hydration Status  76  •  Hydration and Performance  77  •  Age-Related Fluid Needs  81  •  Professional Applications  84  •  Summary Points  85 6 Vitamins and Minerals Henry C. Lukaski, PhD Micronutrient Requirements for Athletes  90  •  Vitamins and Performance  92  •  Minerals and Performance  99  •  Professional Applications  106  •  Summary Points  108 iv 87 7 Strength and Power Supplements 109 Colin Wilborn, PhD, and Bill I. Campbell, PhD Creatine  112  •  HMB  115  •  Protein and Amino Acids  117  •  Beta-Alanine  121  •  Professional Applications  123  •  Summary Points  125 8 Aerobic Endurance Supplements 127 Bob Seebohar, MS, RD Sport Drinks as Ergogenic Aids  127  •  Amino Acids and Protein for Aerobic Endurance Athletes  131  •  High Molecular Weight Carbohydrates  136  •  Caffeine  138  •  Sodium Bicarbonate and Citrate  141  •  Professional Applications  142  •  Summary Points  146 9 Nutrient Timing 149 Chad M. Kerksick, PhD Nutrient Timing and Aerobic Endurance Performance  150  •  Nutrient Intake and Recovery  161  •  Nutrient Timing, Resistance Training, and Strength and Power Performance  165  •  Professional Applications  176  •  Summary Points  181 10 Energy Expenditure and Body Composition 183 Paul La Bounty, PhD, MPT, and Jose Antonio, PhD Energy Balance  184  •  Hypocaloric Diets  186  •  Hypercaloric Diets  194  •  Sport Supplements to Improve Body Composition  197  •  Professional Applications  200  •  Summary Points  201 11 Nutritional Needs Analysis 203 Marie A. Spano, MS, RD Measuring Body Composition  203  •  Recording and Analyzing Food Intake  209  •  Professional Applications  215  •  Summary Points  218 12 Consultation and Development of Athlete Plans 223 Amanda Carlson Phillips, MS, RD Providing Nutrition Knowledge  224  •  Maintaining Confidentiality  226  •  Developing the Athlete’s Nutrition Plan  229  •  Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating  240  •  Female Athlete Triad  244  •  Professional Applications  245  •  Summary Points  246 References  249  •  Index  301  •  About the Editors  309  •  Contributors  311 v This page intentionally left blank. Introduction What is sport nutrition? Ask 10 different people this question, and you are likely to receive 10 different answers. At its most basic level, sport nutrition is the practice of ingesting nutrients in the correct amounts at specific times to improve exercise or sport performance. But while improving sport performance is a goal for some, many individuals are not competitive in their activities but rather are concerned with improving their body composition, 5K time, or maximum bench press, for example. An intriguing aspect of sport nutrition is that the same principles apply to the elite athlete as to the individual who has hired a personal trainer for the first time. One of the primary objectives of this book is to relay practical, scientific information to this diverse range of fitness enthusiasts and competitive athletes. Scientific inquiry into the domain of sport nutrition has steadily increased over the past few decades. In fact, since 1990, the number of scholarly, peer-reviewed publications in the realm of sport nutrition has exponentially increased. It appears that almost each issue of every scientific journal in the fields of exercise science and nutrition includes at least one study or comprehensive review related to sport nutrition. Even though this research is answering a number of questions, many unanswered questions and divided opinions on fundamental aspects of nutrition intake, supplementation, and exercise performance remain. Examples include the amount of protein ingestion that will maximize training adaptations, the safety of creatine supplementation, and the best combinations of supplements to use to improve performance. It is these unanswered questions and differing opinions that drive the progression and growth of sport nutrition research. This research is pertinent to many populations, from mothers of teenagers playing multiple sports to Olympic athletes specializing in one particular movement pattern. This book discusses how food and sport supplements interact with the body’s biological functions. Pertinent research is cited to highlight specific nutrient intakes that have been shown to improve exercise and sport performance. Chapters also present information on assessing an athlete’s nutritional status and developing a plan based on this assessment. As a whole, the book will give readers a better understanding of how ingested food is metabolized, stored, and oxidized for energy. The research presented demonstrates how the proper selection of these nutrients can improve performance. vii viii Introduction This book is divided into 12 chapters. The first chapter overviews how nutrition affects training and performance. The next several chapters discuss the macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat), specifically how these nutrients are metabolized, stored, and oxidized for energy, and presents scientifically based recommendations for ingesting these macronutrients to improve aerobic, anaerobic, and strength training performance. Chapter 5 discusses fluids, including the fluid needs of aerobic endurance and strength athletes, and outlines common problems resulting from an inadequacy or overabundance of ingested fluids. Chapter 6 considers micronutrients and their role in metabolism and exercise. The next several chapters discuss specific nutrition techniques and nutritional ergogenic aids that have been shown to improve aerobic endurance, strength, and power performance, as well as nutrition techniques and nutritional ergogenic aids that may help improve body composition. The final two chapters provide important information on assessing nutrition status and developing a comprehensive plan based on the assessment. Sport nutrition is an umbrella term that can encompass a great deal of information. It is our hope that through this book the reader will gain an enhanced understanding of how food, sport supplements, and their interactions with the body’s biological systems can enhance exercise and sport performance. Acknowledgments We would like to thank everyone who has paved the path and opened doors in the field of sport nutrition. Your hard work, dedication, and knowledge have created opportunities for those of us who have come after you. We would especially like to acknowledge Richard Kreider, PhD, Jose Antonio, PhD, and Jeff Stout, PhD, for your mentorship, leadership, and extensive work in the field of sport nutrition. 1 Foods and Fluids for Training and Sport Performance Bill I. Campbell, PhD, CSCS, FISSN Marie A. Spano, MS, RD, LD, CSCS, CSSD, FISSN Many modifiable factors contribute to an athlete’s success. The most important ones are a sound strength and conditioning program, sport psychology, sport-specific training, nutrition, supplementation, rest, and recovery. Not only do these factors affect long-term training and subsequent performance, but they can also play a major role in just one competition. The science of nutrition and performance (and also of nutrition and physique changes) is growing by leaps and bounds. As this body of research expands and scientists scrutinize ever more closely the factors that can affect an athlete’s performance and physique, the need for sport nutrition practitioners is also growing. At both the college and professional level, sport nutritionists use scientific research to make sound recommendations to athletes. They often work with coaches, strength and conditioning professionals, and trainers as part of a comprehensive team whose primary goal is to assist the athletes. Sport nutritionists help athletes make sound changes to their dietary intake, apply nutrient timing techniques, alter their supplementation regimen, and make sense of all the information related to supplements. Sport nutritionists also develop healthy training tables, measure body composition and bone density, help athletes navigate the grocery store, teach them the basics of preparing healthy meals, and work with a team of professionals to develop a treatment plan for athletes with eating disorders. 1 2 NSCA’s Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition New Developments in Nutrition Research What are some of the hottest areas of research relevant to an athlete’s diet? From macronutrients to electrolyte balance to supplements that mitigate fatigue, sport nutrition incorporates a multifaceted body of research. When it comes to macronutrients, the timing of consumption is just as important as the specific macronutrient consumed. Nutrient timing, the practice of consuming a specific nutrient in a given time period within proximity to training or performance, affects physique changes, glycogen replenishment, muscle protein synthesis, and performance. ➤➤ nutrient timing—The practice of consuming a specific nutrient in a given time period within proximity to training or performance to achieve a desired outcome. Carbohydrate consumption is an area of nutrient timing that has a great impact on many athletes. Twenty years ago, carbohydrate research largely focused on aerobic endurance athletes. However, studies since then have examined the importance of pre- and postexercise carbohydrate consumption for resistance training as a means of restoring glycogen losses (Robergs et al. 1991; Tesch et al. 1998), altering hormone secretion, and influencing muscle protein synthesis (Volek 2004). In addition, the types of carbohydrate ingested play a critical role, with a glucose plus fructose beverage possibly the best means of staying hydrated (Jeukendrup and Moseley 2010) and potentially sparing endogenous carbohydrate during exercise (Currell and Jeukendrup 2008). And a unique, high molecular weight starch-based carbohydrate made from barley amylopectin may be preferable to low molecular weight carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides for expediting glycogen replenishment (Stephens et al. 2008). Protein research has evolved from studies of the amino acid profiles (PDCAAS, protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score) of various sources of protein to research on nutrient timing and on types of protein (i.e., whey) that may play a role in weight loss (Lockwood et al. 2008). In addition, researchers have determined when and how branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and to what extent essential amino acids (EAAs) increase muscle protein synthesis (Borsheim et al. 2002; Norton and Layman 2006; Shimomura et al. 2006; Tipton et al. 1999). The final macronutrient, fat, may play an important role in overall health, while some types of fat, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and medium-chain triglycerides, continue to spark interest for their potential role in improving exercise performance and enhancing weight loss. ➤➤ PDCAAS (protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score)—A method of evaluating protein quality based on the amino acid requirements of humans and ease of digestion; 100% is often used as the highest value (values above 100 are truncated) and 0 is the lowest (Schaafsma 2000). Foods and Fluids for Training and Sport Performance Though the ingestion of micronutrients above and beyond the Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) has not been shown to enhance performance, population-based studies are uncovering that many people do not consume the RDI of certain nutrients and that some individuals are deficient in one or more micronutrients. And, making up for a dietary deficiency by consuming a micronutrient may directly or indirectly enhance performance. For instance, taking extra iron even if you have enough in your diet will not help performance. However, individuals who are iron deficient should notice an improvement in their levels of fatigue and their athletic performance if they correct this deficiency through supplementation. When it comes to specific micronutrients, certain groups of people are more likely to experience a deficiency than others (women are more likely to be deficient in calcium and iron, for example, than men). In some cases, correcting micronutrient deficiencies may directly enhance performance (iron deficiency anemia, for example); and in others it may benefit overall health, help prevent injuries and illness (vitamin D, for example), or quicken the recovery process (sodium for enhancing thirst and therefore rehydration). Chapter 6 presents an in-depth analysis of the various micronutrients and their importance to exercise performance. ➤➤ micronutrient—A substance needed in small amounts by the body. All vitamins and minerals are micronutrients. Possibly the hottest topic among athletes is supplements. In a society fascinated with finding “magic bullets,” athletes are also in search of anything that will help them get stronger, faster, and leaner and possibly even concentrate better. Consequently, a wide variety of sport supplements fill up store shelves and the cabinets of physically active individuals. Fortunately, there is scientific research to substantiate marketing claims for some of these purported ergogenic aids. Creatine, protein, caffeine, amino acids, electrolyte replacement sport beverages, beta-alanine, and high molecular weight starch-based carbohydrates are among the most widely researched supplements to date (these are explored in more depth in chapters 7 and 8). Topics in Nutrition and Performance In research on an athlete’s diet, three of the top areas sport nutritionists hone in on are macronutrients, hydration, and ergogenic aids. The type and amount of macronutrients, as well as the timing of consumption, can have a major impact on performance, recovery, and overall health. And changing the variables related to macronutrient intake, including the type of macronutrient consumed, when it is consumed, and the amount consumed, can often have an immediate impact on how an athlete feels. Hydration encompasses more than just cooling the body. Hydration also affects electrolyte status and nutrient delivery. Finally, ergogenic aids are very popular 3 4 NSCA’s Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition among athletes looking for an edge on their competition. Ergogenic aids are a very large category of supplements and range from ineffective to effective, as well as from dangerous to very safe for intended use. Macronutrients Macronutrient (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) ingestion is essential for a multitude of life-sustaining activities, including preservation of the structural and functional integrity of the human body. In the realm of sport nutrition, the macronutrients are often discussed in terms of energy production and their role in building skeletal muscle that can subsequently be trained or stimulated to enhance force production (table 1.1). Specifically, carbohydrate and fat are the primary nutrients used for energy production; protein contributes only a small amount of the total energy used (Lemon and Nagle 1981; van Loon et al. 1999). ➤➤ macronutrient—Substances required by the body in large amounts. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat are all macronutrients. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, allows the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. The energy in food (chemical energy) does not transfer directly to the cells for biologic work. Rather, “macronutrient energy” funnels through the energy-rich ATP compound (McArdle, Katch, and Katch 2008). This proces...
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