Nutritional Assessment of Athletes.pdf - Nutritional Assessment of Athletes NUTRITION in EXERCISE and SPORT Edited by Ira Wolinsky Nutritional

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Unformatted text preview: Nutritional Assessment of Athletes NUTRITION in EXERCISE and SPORT Edited by Ira Wolinsky Nutritional Assessment of Athletes Edited by Judy A. Driskell, Ph.D., R.D. University of Nebraska Ira Wolinsky, Ph.D. University of Houston CRC PR E S S Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. 0927_FM_frame Page 4 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nutritional assessment of athletes / Judy A. Driskell, Ira Wolinsky. p. cm. (Nutrition in exercise and sport) ISBN 0-8493-0927-1 (alk. paper) 1. Athletes--Nutrition. I. Driskell, Judy A. (Judy Anne) II. Wolinsky, Ira. III. Series TX361.A8 N893 2002 613.2′024796—dc21 2002019232 CIP Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. All rights reserved. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the personal or internal use of specific clients, may be granted by CRC Press LLC, provided that $1.50 per page photocopied is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISBN 0-8493-0927-1/02/ $0.00+$1.50. The fee is subject to change without notice. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. Visit the CRC Press Web site at © 2002 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-0927-1 Library of Congress Card Number 2002019232 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper 0927_FM_frame Page 5 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Series Preface The CRC Series on Nutrition in Exercise and Sport provides a setting for in-depth exploration of the many and varied aspects of nutrition and exercise, including sports. The topic of exercise and sports nutrition has been a focus of research among scientists since the 1960s, and the healthful benefits of good nutrition and exercise have been appreciated. As our knowledge expands, it will be necessary to remember that there must be a range of diets and exercise regimes that will support excellent physical condition and performance. There is no single diet-exercise treatment that can be the common denominator, or the one formula for health, or a panacea for performance. This Series is dedicated to providing a stage upon which to explore these issues. Each volume provides a detailed and scholarly examination of some aspect of the topic. Contributors from bona fide areas of nutrition and physical activity, including sports and the controversial, have participated in the Series. Ira Wolinsky, Ph.D. University of Houston Series Editor 0927_FM_frame Page 6 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM 0927_FM_frame Page 7 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Preface This volume is part of a miniseries within the CRC Series on Nutrition and Sport, which comprises comprehensive books on subjects of timely interest for sports nutritionists of all walks in the expanding field of sports nutrition, written by competent editors and authors who are well known in their fields. The series includes monographs, edited volumes, and textbooks. This volume focuses on assessment of athletes, with an emphasis on nutrition. The first section, dealing with dietary assessment, is followed by sections on anthropometric, physical activity needs, biochemical and clinical. We have been gratified at the response to our books — it is difficult to find such a trove of information on the subject in one place. Sports nutritionists, sports medicine and fitness professionals, researchers, students, health practitioners and the educated layman will find this book timely and useful. Companions to this book are four other volumes in this miniseries: Sports Nutrition: Vitamins and Trace Elements; Macroelements, Water and Electrolytes in Sports Nutrition; Energy-Yielding Macronutrients and Energy Metabolism in Sports Nutrition; and Nutritional Applications in Exercise and Sport. Additionally useful will be Nutrition in Exercise and Sport, Third Edition, edited by Ira Wolinsky, and Sports Nutrition, authored by Judy Driskell. Judy A. Driskell, Ph.D., R.D. University of Nebraska Ira Wolinsky, Ph.D. University of Houston 0927_FM_frame Page 8 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM 0927_FM_frame Page 9 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Dedication This book is dedicated to all of our current and former students, who continue to stimulate our thinking and renew our dedication. 0927_FM_frame Page 10 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM 0927_FM_frame Page 11 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Acknowledgments We thank and appreciate each of the individuals who so expertly wrote each of the chapters and allowed us to benefit from their expertise. 0927_FM_frame Page 12 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM 0927_FM_frame Page 13 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Editors Judy Anne Driskell, Ph.D., R.D., is professor of nutritional science and dietetics at the University of Nebraska. She received her B.S. degree in biology from the University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg. Her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees were obtained from Purdue University. She has served in research and teaching positions at Auburn University, Florida State University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and the University of Nebraska. She has also served as the nutrition scientist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Cooperative State Research Service and as a professor of nutrition and food science at Gadjah Mada and Bogor Universities in Indonesia. Dr. Driskell is a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Society of Nutritional Sciences, the American College of Sports Medicine, the Institute of Food Technologists, and the American Dietetic Association. In 1993 she received the Professional Scientist Award from the Food Science and Human Nutrition Section of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists. In addition, she was the 1987 recipient of the Borden Award for Research in Applied Fundamental Knowledge of Human Nutrition. She is listed as an expert in B-complex vitamins by the Vitamin Nutrition Information Service. Dr. Driskell coedited the CRC books Sports Nutrition: Minerals and Electrolytes with Constance V. Kies. In addition, she authored the textbook Sports Nutrition and coauthored an advanced nutrition book Nutrition: Chemistry and Biology, both published by CRC. With Ira Wolinsky, she coedited Sports Nutrition: Vitamins and Trace Elements; Macroelements, Water, and Electrolytes in Sports Nutrition; Energy-Yielding Macronutrients and Energy Metabolism in Sports Nutrition; Nutritional Applications in Exercise and Sport and the current book Nutritional Assessment of Athletes. She has published more than 100 refereed research articles and 10 book chapters, as well as several publications intended for lay audiences, and has given numerous professional and lay presentations. Her current research interests center around vitamin metabolism and requirements, including the interrelationships between exercise and water-soluble vitamin requirements. 0927_FM_frame Page 14 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Ira Wolinsky, Ph.D., is professor of nutrition at the University of Houston. He received his B.S. degree in chemistry from the City College of New York and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in biochemistry from the University of Kansas. He has served in research and teaching positions at the Hebrew University, the University of Missouri and The Pennsylvania State University, as well as conducting basic research in NASA life sciences facilities and abroad. Dr. Wolinsky is a member of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences, among other honorary and scientific organizations. He has contributed numerous nutrition research papers in the open literature. His major research interests relate to the nutrition of bone and calcium and trace elements, and to sports nutrition. He has been the recipient of research grants from both public and private sources, and of several international research fellowships and consultantships to the former Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, and India. He merited a Fulbright Senior Scholar Fellowship to Greece in 1999–2000. Dr. Wolinsky has coauthored a book on the history of the science of nutrition, Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases. He coedited Sports Nutrition: Vitamins and Trace Elements; Macroelements, Water, and Electrolytes in Sports Nutrition; Energy-Yielding Macronutrients and Energy Metabolism in Sports Nutrition; Nutritional Applications in Exercise and Sport, and the current book Nutritional Assessment of Athletes, all with Judy Driskell. Additionally, he coedited Nutritional Concerns of Women with Dorothy Klimis-Tavantzis and The Mediterranean Diet: Constituents and Health Promotion with his Greek colleagues. He edited three editions of Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. He served also as the editor or coeditor for the CRC Series Nutrition in Exercise and Sport; Modern Nutrition; Methods in Nutrition Research and Exercise Physiology. 0927_FM_frame Page 15 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Contributors Barbara E. Ainsworth, Ph.D., M.P.H. Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Exercise Science, University of South Carolina School of Public Health, Columbia, South Carolina Carol Ballew, Ph.D. Epidemiology Center, The Alaska Native Health Board, Anchorage, Alaska Rebecca A. Battista, M.S. Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan Gregory P. Bondy, M.D., F.R.C.P.C. D e p a r t m e n t o f P a t h o l o g y a n d Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia Samuel N. Cheuvront, Ph.D. U . S . A r m y R e s e a rc h , Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts Institute of Keith C. DeRuisseau, M.S. Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida Judy A. Driskell, Ph.D., R.D. Department of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska James R. Guest, M.D. Pediatrician, Lincoln, Nebraska Jean E. Guest, M.S., R.D., L.M.N.T. Department of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska Mark D. Haub, Ph.D. Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas Andrew P. Hills, Ph.D. School of Human Movement Studies, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia Khursheed N. Jeejeebhoy, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.P.C. Department of Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Ph.D. Department of Nutrition, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 0927_FM_frame Page 16 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Richard E. Killingsworth, M.P.H., C.H.E.S. Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Michael J. LaMonte, Ph.D., M.P.H. Prevention Research Center, School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina Scott A. Lear, Ph.D. School of Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia Nancy M. Lewis, Ph.D., R.D., F.A.D.A. Department of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska Helena B. Löest, M.S. Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas Henry C. Lukaski, Ph.D. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota Robert Malina, Ph.D. I n s t i t u t e f o r Yo u t h S p o r t s , M i c h i g a n S t a t e University, East Lansing, Michigan Michael J. LaMonte, Ph.D., M.P.H. F i t n e s s I n s t i t u t e , D i v i s i o n o f Cardiology, LDS University, Salt Lake City, Utah Robert G. McMurray, Ph.D. Departments of Exercise and Sport Science and Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Robert J. Moffatt, Ph.D., M.P.H. Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida Jana Pa rˇ ízková, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc. T h i r d D e p a r t m e n t o f I n t e r n a l Medicine, First Medical Faculty, Charles University, Unemocnice 1, Prague, Czech Republic Stuart M. Phillips, Ph.D. D e p a r t m e n t o f K i n e s i o l o g y, M c M a s t e r University, Hamilton, Ontario Shannon R. Siegel, Ph.D. School of Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom Ira Wolinsky, Ph.D. Department of Human Development, University of Houston, Houston, Texas Monika M. Woolsey, M.S., R.D. A Better Way Health Consulting, Inc., Glendale, Arizona 0927_FM_frame Page 17 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Contents Section One 1 Introduction Introduction to Nutritional Assessment of Athletes.................. 3 Robert J. Moffatt and Samuel N. Cheuvront Section Two Dietary Assessment of Athletes 2 Estimation of Food and Nutrient Intakes of Athletes ............. 17 Carol Ballew and Richard E. Killingsworth 3 Evaluation of Nutrient Adequacy of Athletes’ Diets using Nutrient Intake Data .................................................................... 43 Satya Jonnalagadda 4 Assessment of Possible Presence of Eating Disorders............. 61 Monika M. Woolsey Section Three Anthropometric Assessment of Athletes 5 Assessment of Growth in Child Athletes ................................. 91 Jean E. Guest, Nancy M. Lewis and James R. Guest 6 Assessment of Growth in Adolescent Athletes ...................... 115 ˇ ízková Andrew P. Hills and Jana Par 7 Anthropometry of Adult Athletes: Concepts, Methods and Applications ......................................................................... 135 Robert M. Malina, Rebecca A. Battista and Shannon R. Siegel 8 Body Composition and Gender Differences in Performance ................................................................................. 177 Samuel N. Cheuvront, Robert J. Moffatt and Keith C. DeRuisseau 0927_FM_frame Page 18 Friday, March 22, 2002 9:57 AM Section Four Athletes 9 Physical Activity Needs Assessment of Laboratory Methods for Determining Energy Expenditures of Athletes ........................................................... 203 Robert G. McMurray 10 Field Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure among Athletes ..................................................... 225 Michael J. LaMonte and Barbara E. Ainsworth Section Five 11 Biochemical Assessment of Athletes Assessment of Lipid Status in Athletes................................... 259 Scott A. Lear and Gregory P. Bondy 12 Assessment of Protein Status in Athletes................................ 283 Stuart M. Phillips 13 Assessment of Vitamin Status in Athletes .............................. 317 Helena B. Löest and Mark D. Haub 14 Assessment of Mineral Status in Athletes .............................. 339 Henry C. Lukaski Section Six Clinical Assessment of Athletes 15 Clinical Assessment of Athletes ............................................... 373 Khursheed N. Jeejeebhoy 16 Summary — Nutritional Assessment of Athletes ................... 387 Judy A. Driskell and Ira Wolinsky Index ..................................................................................................... 395 0927_C01_frame Page 1 Thursday, March 21, 2002 1:33 PM Section One Introduction 0927_C01_frame Page 2 Thursday, March 21, 2002 1:33 PM 0927_C01_frame Page 3 Thursday, March 21, 2002 1:33 PM 1 Introduction to Nutritional Assessment of Athletes Robert J. Moffatt and Samuel N. Cheuvront CONTENTS I. Introduction..................................................................................... 3 II. The Practice of Sports Nutrition ................................................... 4 A. An Emerging Field of Study .................................................... 4 B. Roles and Responsibilities ........................................................ 5 III. Nutritional Assessment of Athletes: A Unique Set of Challenges................................................................................... 6 A. Energy Requirements for Exercise ........................................... 6 B. Anthropometry and Weight Control Issues ............................ 8 C. Evaluation of Biochemical and Clinical Physiology ............ 10 IV. Summary........................................................................................ 10 References ............................................................................................... 11 I. Introduction Nutritional interest in special populations is the very basis of modern dietary guidelines and nutrient standards. Many of the first scientific investigations into the food requirements of man were shaped largely by the compulsion to understand his nutrient needs and to maintain the health and working capacity of soldiers, industrial workers and agricultural laborers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.1 Importantly, in conjunction with researchbased recommendations, was the desire for rational nutrition education.1 Ironically, the explosion of research interest in nutrition and physical activity (sports nutrition) over the past two decades is still predicated on the desire to advance health and work performance, while simultaneously opposing persistent and pervasive nutrition myth. Athlete healthcare, training, diet 0-8493-0927-1/02/$0.00+$1.50 © 2002 by CRC Press LLC 3 0927_C01_frame Page 4 Thursday, March 21, 2002 1:33 PM 4 Nutritional Assessment of Athletes and education are accomplished best by an interdisciplinary team of sports medicine practitioners, including physicians, athletic trainers, exercise and nutrition scientists and dietitians. II. The Practice of Sports Nutrition A. An Emerging Field of Study A credible “sports nutritionist” is a registered dietitian (R.D.), usually with advanced preparation in exercise sciences, particularly exercise physiology. These individuals work with recreational sports enthusiasts, high school, collegeor professional sports coaches, trainers and, of course, athletes. In the narrowest sense, their role is to optimize health and athletic performance through sound dietary intervention. Although registered dietitians are trained food and nutrition experts capable of a broad range of professional duties, specific “sports” education and training are not classical components of their education.2 Sports nutrition is one nontraditional facet of the dietetic profession that requires a substantial working knowledge of exercise science and a sincere interest in sport. Traditionally, dietitians intent on practicing sports nutrition advanced their education in the exercise sciences and sought experience working patiently with athletes, coaches and trainers.3 Similarly, scientists trained in the dual disciplines of e...
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