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Anatomy and Physiology I –Brain and Cranial NervesBy learning you will teach; by teaching you will learn.-Latin proverb
Encephalonic Divisions of the Brain:1) Telencephalon(Cerebrum)2)DiencephalonA) ThalamusB) HypothalamusC) Pituitary Gland3)MetencephalonA) CerebellumB) Pons4)Mesencephalon (Midbrain)5)Mylencephalon(Medulla Oblongata)A typical brain weighs about 3 pounds with male’s being about 10% larger than females insize.However the brain size does not correlate to intelligence.Anatomy and Physiology I –Brain and Cranial NervesObjective 19
Anatomy and Physiology I –Brain and Cranial NervesObjective 191)Cerebrum-Largest sectionof the brain.-Coveredby“Cerebral/neuralcortex”,whichisasuperficial layer of gray matter.-Cerebral Cortex– has (a)right cerebral hemisphereand(b)left cerebralhemisphere, which areseparatedbylongitudinal fissurebut connectedby “corpus callosum”.-Eachhemispherereceivessensoryand sendsmotorcommandsto opposite side of the body(no one knows whythe crossover exists).-Two hemisphereshave different functions, but differentregions in a hemisphere may have the same function.A)Left Cerebral Hemisphere– reading, writing, math,logic, and speakingare processed in this region.B)Right Cerebral Hemisphere– emotions and recognizingfacesare processedis this region.Larger number of “Artsy” people are left handed due to thecross over.
Anatomy and Physiology I –Brain and Cranial NervesObjective 11-Lobesare divisionsof thecerebral hemispheresthatare named after overlyingskull bones.All lobesintegrateand processsensory informationandinitiatemotor commands.4 Lobes:a)Frontal Lobe– primarymotor cortex; voluntarycontrolofskeletal muscles;Pre Central Gyrus– (part offrontal lobe) containsthe “primary motor cortex”.b)Parietal Lobe– primarysensory cortex;perceivestouch,pressure,pain,taste,andtemperature;Post Central Gyrus– (part ofparietal lobe)contains the “primary sensory cortex”.c)Temporal Lobe–auditoryandolfactorycortex; perceiveshearingandsmell.d)Occipital Lobe–visual cortex; perceivesvisual stimuli.e)Others (insula)-
Anatomy and Physiology I –Brain and Cranial NervesObjective 192)Diencephalon-Composed of:(a)Thalamus-thoughttobeinvolvedwithconsciousness, levels of awareness and activity.Damage can lead to permanent coma.(b)Hypothalamus–locatedonfloorofdiencephalon; responsible for emotions andhormone production.-Infundibulum– a narrow stalk thatconnectsthehypothalamusto thepituitarygland(brain to endocrine system).(c)Pituitarygland-endocrineglandwhichreleaseshormonesto regulate homeostasis.
Anatomy and Physiology I –Brain and Cranial NervesObjective 19Cerebrum/Diencephalon/Mesencephalon3)Mesencephalon-Meso middle or mid brain.